Report of the Seminar
Defending National Interest
in the Emerging Internal Regional and International Challenges
Organised by Institute of
Foreign Affairs (IFA)
9 September 2014, Kathmandu
Institute of Foreign Affairs, IFA in collaboration with Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
(FES) organized a seminar program, 'Defending National Interest
in the Emerging Internal, Regional and International Challenges'
on 9 September 2014 at Hotel Radison, Kathmandu. The program was
separated into three sessions: Inaugural Session and two Paper
presentations Session from two different distinguished Experts.
Inaugurating the seminar, Chief Guest Hon. Mr. Mahendra Bahadur
Panday, Minister for Foreign Affairs described on Nepal's foreign
policy giving emphasis on the internal policy reflecting on
foreign policy. Nonetheless, he frankly put his view on the
problem of foreign policy caused by the interest of different
political parties rather it should be the voice of a state.
He added, "single foreign policy should be prioritized
and maintained as every political party must stand for the foreign
values". He further added that we need to work hard tactfully
to catch up the emerging opportunities at the global level.
We must be clear on neighboring policy before analyzing in house
"As the Foreign Minister of the country, defending Nepal's
national interests in relation to international community in
a broader sense is my primary responsibility", he further
said. Moreover, Nepal faces a number of challenges, many in
the context of the recent developments, in meeting its foreign
policy objectives. In this sense, discussing and analyzing the
challenges the country is facing, or is likely to face in the
days ahead, and trying to find out possible measures to effectively
address the challenges is a timely and important initiative.
In addition to these, he further focused on Foreign policy.
It is guided and dictated by a number of factors both internal
and external. Other peculiarities such as the country's location,
diplomatic traditions and aspirations of the people play equally
important roles in deciding the country's foreign policy. Besides,
every country has its national philosophy which provides inputs
in the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. This
is true in Nepal's case as well.
Ever since Nepal took the shape of a united country, especially
after the period of King Prithvi Narayan Shah, its foreign policy
has largely been guided by geopolitical factors. Located as
we are between the two big neighbors, our foreign policy orientation
has been to maintain the best of relations with both countries
based on the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity,
political independence and mutuality of benefits.
We have been maintaining balanced relations with our neighbors;
have been advocating the rights of the developing countries
in general, and those of the least developed and land-locked
countries, in particular; have expressed our unswerving commitment
to the principles as enshrined in the UN Charter; have been
playing active role as a NAM member; and have been making exemplary
contribution to maintaining world peace.
Internally, Nepal is in the process of drafting new constitution
for the country to institutionalize democratic gains achieved
over the years. We have to meet the ever growing expectations
of our people, especially in the aftermath of the successful
People's Movement-2. Besides, we have to reduce poverty and
unemployment, provide essential services to our people, and
have to guarantee law and order in the society. From the outside,
these issues seem not to have any bearing on foreign policy.
But, they have. Needless to say, foreign policy is the extension
of domestic policy. We need moral and political support from
our neighbors, friends and well-wishers in the international
community to accomplish the vital task of constitution writing
and generous material support to meet our socio-economic development
needs. In this context, I would like to mention about our commitment
to achieve developing country status by 2022.
Our immediate neighbors, China and India, for example, expect
Nepal's active cooperation in not allowing our territory to
be misused by elements inimical to them. The international community
expects Nepal to be a truly democratic country, marked by respect
for human rights, rule of law and social harmony. Thus, as we
can clearly see, the interests of our country and that of many
others coincide and converge.
I have tried to briefly outline Nepal's national interest,
and the Government's plans to defend them. I would like to stress
that national consensus on foreign policy issue is absolutely
essential for us to be effective in pursuing our enlightened
Mr. Shanker Dash Bairagi, Acting Foreign Secretary:
Mr. Shanker Dash Bairagi, Acting Foreign Secretary said that
the core objective of foreign policy is to promote and safeguard
national interests. Parameters of national interest define a
boundary within which every government has to seek external
engagement. For any state for its survival and growth, nothing
is more important than preserving and promoting national interest.
National interest cannot be pursued in isolation or in vacuum.
Every government operates in a maze of complex challenges and
has to address them effectively. Challenges and complexities
abound at national, regional and international levels. Indeed,
circumstances and contexts under which we attain foreign policy
objectives are not as simple and predictable as we would wish
The growing shift of power to non-state actors has created both
opportunities and challenges. On the positive side, transnational
non-governmental organization, civil society groups, faith-based
organizations, multinational corporations, other business bodies
and interest groups have greater role today at reframing issues
and mobilizing public. On the negative side, hostile, non-state
actors such as criminal organizations and terrorist networks
all empowered by new technologies can pose serious security
threats and compound systemic risk.
International security has become multi-dimensional. Terrorism
and cross border crimes are on the rise. The international community
is yet to find amicable solutions to various crises around the
world. However premature of a concept it may sound, the world
is abuzz with the 'onset of second cold war'.
Prime Minister Modi has given priority in relations with neighbors
which has generated tremendous enthusiasm across South Asia.
SAARC member states, given huge potentials, must cooperate in
a meaningful way to assert South Asia's rightful place on the
world stage. We are expecting the 18th SAARC summit in Kathmandu
later this year to be an important milestone in the evolution
Our balanced relations with India and China; great faith in
and active participation in multilateral diplomacy; steadfast
commitment to and involvement in non-alignment; dynamic engagement
in regional diplomacy under SAARC and BIMSTEC; our consistent
support and involvement in UN peacekeeping; our focus on economic
diplomacy are among the activities we have been carrying on
with full vigor. With this in mind, I put forward some suggestions
-'6Cs'- for consideration. These are consensus, critical and
creative thinking, clear, consistent and credible, cooperation
and collaboration, comprehensive and cooperative and constructive
Dr. Rishi Raj Adhikari, Executive Director of IFA:
Dr. Adhikari, focused in the current situation of Nepal. Nepal,
recently, at a cross road of various issues is especially in
the grueling and never ending exercise of constitution writing.
All important factors and apparatus of state conduction are
in a fluid state.
We witnessed the death of CA I amidst multi-sectoral and multi-regional
cataclysm and are wary about the fate of CA II, though there
are glimmer of positive sign and symptoms on the horizon. We
believe a constitution, the mother of all laws, will pave the
way for avenues wherein we will be able to defend ourselves
from any impending internal and external threats to our national
Internally, protecting national interests encompasses software
such as freedom from all kinds of fear, poverty, marginalization,
unemployment and exclusion etc. We also have to start imagining
the chaos to be created if our youth, battered as migrant workers,
and angry, start returning back from abroad in hordes due to
labour problem in destination countries and seek their right
to be employed! This could be another manifestation of weakening
the national interest.
Partisan politics prevailing over vital issues such as national
political system; politicization of national institutions includes
judiciary, educations, bureaucracy, and criminalization of politics;
internal cultural conflicts including inter-religious; inter-ethnic/racial
and inter-regional are other factors to be considered while
planning for defense of national interest.
Dr. Adhikari raised mainly two issues; national and international
challenges. Nepal is in a very sensitive geo-strategic position
as a bridge between two physical, economic and military giants.
They are competing with each other for world attention and leadership.
It is a delicate matter for Nepal to play a balancing role as
a physically, economically and militarily small country. Nepal
needs to urgently develop a coherent foreign and defense strategy
which ensures protection of our national interest and also caters
the need of our neighbors.
With the welcome remarks, Mr. Yadav Prasad Khanal, Resource
Person of IFA, highlighted the issues on discussion subject
matters. He emphasized on the gravity of this subject and also
informed that IFA is organizing this discussion forum with an
objective that the outcome of this discourse will add value
to a desirable resolution of our vital transitional moment.
Nepal, like any country, has many challenges at the international
level. Though we are landlocked country, we cannot be left isolated
from the world due to globalization effect and expansion of
information technology. The west is heading to the east and
our neighbors and the entire East Asia have become the focal
point of today's global politics. Together, the world is interconnected
amongst the number of issues like environment, resources, terrorism,
diseases and so on.
After the inaugural session, the experts presented the paper
on different perspective of defense of national interest of
The first session
The session was chaired by Professor Lok Raj Baral and Madhuraman
Acharya, Former Foreign Secretary, had presented on the topic
'In Defence of Nepal's National Interests Internal and Regional
There is no agreed consensus on national interests. This owes
to the polarized and divided positions among the political parties
on many issues related to foreign policy. Nepal's political
parties have a sharply polarized worldview, which is often irreconcilable
to each other. For example, some extreme left groups categorize
the foreign powers as pursuing "hegemony" to "expansionism",
others are seen as pro-certain countries. They are divided not
just on ideological frame, but are also divided on specific
foreign policy issues. The recent example is divided political
opinion about the signing of Power Trade Agreement with India.
Some political parties, including those in the government are
for it, while others are campaigning against the same. Both
blocs have their own interpretation of national interest on
this issue. Thus it gets blurred as to what constitutes the
national interest. If there was clear view on the national interest,
no political party could have stood against such national interest
in any issue.
There is a need for a broadly agreed national goals and priorities
on foreign policy based on clearly defined national interests.
Many countries have clearly defined national interests. Others
have national interests academically articulated well. For example,
Kumar and Kumar (2010) articulate the national interests of
India to be threefold: Securing the country against the external
and internal threats to territory, populations and vital economic
interests. Obtaining the external inputs necessary to achieve
economic prosperity as represented by sustained gross domestic
product (GDP) growth rate between 8 and 10 %; and in Nepal,
we do not have such well-articulated national interests. The
foremost of tasks in defending the national interest is the
need to agree on national goals and priorities on foreign policy.
Nepal's foreign policy must develop a clearly defined strategic
objective linked to its national interests.
First of all there is a need to agreeing on such national security
interests, such as (i) protecting country's national independence
and territorial integrity (defense against external aggression;
securing international boundaries); (ii) protecting the country's
national unity (stopping disintegrating forces internally);
and (iii) protecting the general well-being of the people from
external threats (e.g. terrorism, transnational crime, unconventional
security threats). Usually, national security interests are
achieved through alliances or coalitions, on which Nepal has
adopted non-aligned policy. Then it is built around the policy
of national defence, on which Nepal has doctrine of minimum
deterrence. Yet another instrument in protecting national security
interests is to create harmony in the security interests with
the neighbours, so as to avoid friction.
Any country's national interests may have interface with another
country's interests. Sometimes, the national interests of two
or more countries can be competing or mutually exclusive (e.g.
territorial claims), while in others the countries may have
competing but compatible interests. In other cases, the national
interests of two or more countries can be converging or even
complimentary to each other. Safeguarding the security interests
of neighbours comes within the parameter of national interest.
Nepal's premier diplomat Yadu Nath Khanal said some time ago,"
Nepal's national interest can be undermined if the security
or vital political interests of either of big neigbhours are
undermined in Nepal". Despite the declared policy of not
allowing the Nepalese soil against the security or political
interests of the neigbhouring countries, including India and
China, the continued activities inimical to such interests poses
a strong challenge to the Nepali state. For example, there is
continued allegation of the Nepali territory used by anti-China
activists and by the elements posing terrorist threats to India,
including through the covert support of the intelligence activities
of yet another neighbouring country. With case of the Tibetans
seeking refuge in Nepal there is distinct dichotomy of humanitarian
and political polices that Nepal has adopted. Politically, Nepal
has always supported the "one-China policy" and pledged
not to allow any anti-China activities in its soil. On humanitarian
grounds, Nepal has always given asylum and safe passage to the
Tibetan refugees. Nepal does not recognize the political authority
of Dalai Lama, but is not against the spiritual and religious
sentiments behind His Holiness, who has strong following among
the Buddhist communities in Nepal.
Intelligence constitutes an important aspect of national security
strategy and can play an instrumental role in information/analysis
of threats and challenges to national security. It is commonly
understood Nepal cannot afford to build capability to fight
against any of its big neighbours in the event of being attacked.
Nepal's army draws its military doctrine primarily aimed at
maintaining a capability to defend and deter any hostile against
Nepal's security interests and Nepal's territorial integrity.
Nepal does not have an actively thinking strategic community
of its own. So the country's strategic decisions are left to
those who occupy the government at the time. Though India and
China compete on strategic space in the region, they have similar
positions in most of the global issues, including on climate
change, the doctrine of "responsibility to protect",
preference of UN role in solving global threats to peace and
security, greater say for developing countries in multilateral
financial institutions (hence formation of BRICS). They have
converging stake on the continuation and promotion of trading
and economic relations, which is growing.
Basically, a country's national interests fall under three
broad categories, namely political, security and economic interests.
Politically, the core national interests include preservation
and protection of the country's national independence and territorial
integrity. Economically, each country seeks to achieve economic
edge from the comparative advantage in relation to other countries.
At political level, leaders use the term national interest without
much clarity. They pledge to work towards promoting national
interests, often without specifying them, just as they do for
working for the people. In every country, there is considerable
debate or difference as to what constitutes a national interest.
Often politicians use the term national interest to justify
their action or inaction.
Yubraj Ghimire, Editor- in -chief, Annapurna Post Daily,
has presented his opinion on the paper of Madhu Raman Acharya,
as the commentator. His view has reflected National interest
which can not be defined. However it can be challenged. National
interest cannot be defined; however, it can be challenged. Nepal's
foreign policy can be reflected with the behavior of immigration
officers to Nepalese Citizens' passport at airport of foreign
countries. While observing, bureaucracy in the world, it has
to be progressed from buttering to service, and government service
to national service. However, it has not been practiced yet
in our country. Bureaucracy has not been reflected in public
India had an objection while China and Russia had opened their
embassy in Nepal. The problem was settled during the period
of King Mahendra. Nonetheless, no leaders can stand to protect
the foreign intervention in these days. It can be said that
there is lack of foreign policy, while Nepal is acting as if
it is fulfilling its duty. Mr. Ghimire further added that foreign
policy must protect the country's legacy whilst providing the
example of "Jai katak and Jhiki Katak" policy of King
Prithivi Naraya Shaha. It's been already clear in the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs that the diplomat having a messenger of a
party or the representative of leaders can not contribute to
the country more than they expect. Foreign policy should not
be followed by the parties.
Political parties have changed the mindset of public. It is
not the situation that public can totally trust towards the
state. People have the mindset that foreign policy is run by
the foreigners; as a result the rescue is possible only from
them. Mr. Ghimire also raised the issue of Public Security.
Former Indian Ambassador Shyam Sharan disclosed the fact that
Indian Ambassador himself tried to intervene Nepal to make Republic.
To suppress Republic Movement 2062/2063, Nepal Army attempted
to suppress the movement by firing Nepalese people and the King
Gyanendra protected his people. However, this fact couldn't
come out rather people believed upon the external Power.
Professor Baral on the Chaired the session has touched all
issues related on politics, diplomacy and economics. He has
delivered his opinions in different perspectives. He was highly
impressed in the paper of Mr. Madhu Raman Acharya. He suggested
to keep his paper in the course book of Tribhuvan University.
The topic of Nepal India relation itself seems very common in
his view. Nevertheless, while we go to depth, it has profund
meaning. We don't have any sound understanding of the subject.
Treaty 1950 is not the issue to be raised. The slogan must not
be repeated rather people must understand how geography matters
to define natural interest. Nepal India relation has rumor rather
than ground reality is well known. Both countries should sit
together to find out the solution even in border encroachment.
The decision of 1950 treaty taken by the then government was
right in one hand. On the other hand, the political parties'
leaders take this issue as a big issue while they are out of
government, whereas, they normalize the same issue after they
join the government.
He also talked about China Boarder. Neither we have similar
language nor do we have similar culture with China. Therefore,
there should not be any doubtful relationship with China.
Credibility, leadership and commitment are three major elements
to address National Interest in Foreign Policy. According to
him, Nepali political leaders work in a very low profile. For
instance, it is very difficult to fix the appointment with Foreign
Minister in India, whereas, Nepal itself keeps in a very low
The Second Session
The session was chaired by Dr. Bhekh Bahadur Thapa. During
the session Mr. Shambu Ram Simkhada, Former Ambassador, presented
his paper on "Defending National interest in the Emerging
Regional and International Challenges".
The world is changing profoundly and Nepal is undergoing deep
rooted changes internally. In this process of transformation,
Nepal's political parties and leaders are divided on almost
every important aspect of national politics, economic management
and international affairs, making Nepal vulnerable to internal
division and external influence.
Hans Morgenthau, one of the champions of the Realist School
of International Relations suggests that statesmen think and
act in terms of national interest defined as national power.
In this sense national interest constitute the vital core of
a nation's domestic politics reflected in its foreign policy.
This is fairly straight forward. But how do you determine and
who decides what is in the best interest of a nation-state,
itself in a state of transition internally in the midst of a
region and the world all undergoing profound changes?
Is it politics or economics that determines the course of inter-state
relations? The debate is long and the truth perhaps lies somewhere
in the middle. Historically the view of the founder of modern
Nepal as a "yam between two boulders" made cautious
relations with India and China a vital strategy of Nepal's survival.
Such prognosis helped Nepal remain independent while the rest
of South Asia was overwhelmed by the onslaught of colonialism.
The unprecedented rise of China and India in the post Cold-War
global paradigm flux has created opportunities for changing
this "revenge of geography" into a reward. Besides
the challenge of managing the vitality and complexity of proximity,
good relations with other international actors is equally important
for Nepal's peaceful transformation to a prosperous democratic
republic. Within this overall policy framework the following
could be some of the critical issues in the protection and promotion
of Nepal's national interest in the context of emerging international
Nepal is the meeting point of two great civilizations and South
Asia and the central Himalayas are emerging as one of the main
epicenters of the impending global paradigm shift. Nepal India
relations are deep rooted and wide ranging encompassing the
entire spectrum of history, geography, politics, economics,
language, culture etc. Today India is emerging as a major global
power with rapid economic growth and growing political influence.
The tremendous economic transformation of the last few decades
have already established Nepal's northern neighbor China as
the second largest economy and one of the major global players.
Strong friendship with the two neighbors must not mean relations
with other important players in the International Community
should not be a priority.
One of the most crucial aspects of Nepal's development is foreign
employment and making information, facilitation and assistance
to Nepalese migrant workers as one of the main priorities of
our development policy and diplomacy. With this in mind Nepal
government took the initiative of establishing new resident
embassies in Malaysia, Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates,
the Republic of Korea, Israel, Bahrain and Oman as well as added
labor attaches in countries with large number of Nepalese workers.
Despite this huge investment by the government why Nepali workers
are still the lowest paid and worst treated in many labor importing
countries? The cost-benefit of these new arrangements needs
to be evaluated and necessary steps taken to improve on them.
Ananda Aditya, Professor:
Prof. Ananda Aditya, as the commentator on the paper of Dr.
Simkhada's paper, he addressed on state building. Value, vision
and policy planning to beconnected to the conscience of national
interest. Critical consensus cannot address national interest.
He also focused on current situation of Nepal. Compared to many
countries on the map in this perspective, Nepal may certainly
look small, but is not yet too small to house a medium-sized
population. What it lacks in territorial depth, its geography
makes up in topography. The location of the land may today look
precarious, but this same location between the two emerging
large markets can prove a blessing tomorrow. The nation today
imports all of its fossil fuel bespeaking its heavy dependence
abroad on that material. But some of the physical endowments
that it has - historical, religious, and cultural heritage,
martial tradition, natural beauty, and hydro potential, for
instance - would be the envy of any nation-state. Nepal may
have been too small, too poor, and too vulnerable so far to
demand and win the liberty to determine its own future, as T
Louise Brown put it. But this means neither that it is destined
to remain so in the future nor that the scope for growth will
remain as tantalizing as it has always been so far. Growing
out of its century-old chrysalis, it is a society with a glorious
past, a hospitable present and a bountiful future, waiting for
its true potentials to be realized.
Dr. Bhekh Bahadur Thapa, Former Foreign Minister, has commented
as chair on Dr. Shambhu Ram Singhkhada's Paper. He said, when
past becomes more praise worthy than the future in the context
of a state, then it becomes a failure state. To admire the tenure
of Prithivi Narayan Shah in the present context itself is a
disaster. It signifies that there is no any good initiative
taken by further leaders in our country. While talking about
Foreign Policy of Nepal, we remember King Mahendra and B.P Koirala
but not any other political leaders. Desalt political leaders
do not seen have seriousness towards the country. Lack of international
homework is seen in the present context. Internal conflict has
also directly affected in it. We need the cooperation of intellectuals
and also consensus of all political leaders to reach in a goal.
We must keep smooth relation with our neighboring countries
and always try our best to give continuation in it. Nonetheless,
it depends upon the political leaders who directly deal upon
this. Such leaders must be searched in the coming days who can
really sacrifice for the nation. However, it seems that there
is no such political leaders and appointee who are born for
the sake of nation.
Dr. Gopal Pokharel, Former Executive Director, IFA:
Mr. Gopal Pokharel, former Executive director of IFA, also
has provided his opinion in this way that the national interest
can be pointed out in numerical order. Further he raised the
issue of ethnicity. One should identify his/her own issue and
Kedar Bhakta Shrestha, Former Foreign Secretary:
Mr. Kedar Bhakra Shrestha, former Foreign Secretary remarketed
that we must find out the emerging challenge in the present
context. Emerging regional challenges in next 20 to 30 years
must be found. Collaboration, completion, confrontation and
conflict are four steps of the upcoming challenges. Regional
challenge is to promote regional cooperation. People are aware
that SAARC will celebrate its 30th years; however, people are
also familiar with its functions. Not only SAARC but also BIMSTEC
is the hot issue these days. The most important thing for us
is to think about our role to play in it.
Dr. Bishnu Uprety, Security Export:
Mr. Bishnu Uprety, Security Expert, has focused on European
Countries' concern on Nepal's ethnicity and inclusiveness and
the reason of more concern after 2006. He also should her concern
on the frequent hot discussion on the issue of ethnic and federal
system and its impact in National Interest. Besides them, he
raised the issue of non-functional attitude of SAARC and its
Kosh Raj Koirala, Senior Correspondent, Republica:
Kosh Raj Koirala, Senior Correspondent, Republica has opined
that China is blaming to Nepal for providing opportunity to
enter US Army was disaster preparation in Nepal. China has drawn
attention to the Nepal government that US Army is functioning
in Mustang district of Nepal. His concern is wither foreign
military should penetrate within security Agency or not. It
has lost the confidence within neighboring countries.
Shiva Ram Khanal, Student:
Mr. Shiva Ram Khanal, a student has opined that the development
model of Nepal is disastrous itself. It would be highly appreciated
if the paper of Mr. Madhu Raman Acharya would also raise the
issue of development paradigm; however the reality exists in
haphazard development practice in our country.
Purna Silwal , Brigadier General:
Mr. Purna Silwal, Brigader General has portrayed the clear
picture on Nepali Military Service. This is the first time that
Nepal Army has released Nepali Army Doctrine. The doctrine has
come from Nepalese law and it is the Security Policy. Though
the Security Policy is not mentioned in Nepal's Constitution,
it has come according to the discussion on Nepalese law. And,
the doctrine has been brought out based on constitution. Though
the security is not mentioned as a policy in constitution, it
makes clear the policy. The issue of inclusiveness within Military
section rises very often. The similar question was asked in
the visit of Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, former prime minister
in India during 90s. The Indian government had also recruited
Gorkhali rather than recruiting the people from Bihar. The response
given by the former minister is far enough in the issue of inclusiveness
in Millitary Section. The certain parameter and standard has
been maintained by Armies. Inclusiveness policy has been much
utilized by them. Nepal Army has bilateral military relationship
with many countries not only with US. Therefore, no other countries
should be scared in it.
Dr. Khadga K.C, Coordinator International Relation Section,
Dr. Khadga K.C, Coordinator International relation Section
in TU has provided the recent example of US Government. He has
focused on the recent issue of a U.S. journalist killed by the
terrorists. U.S Government challenged Iraq for only one its
of citizen, whereas, Nepal government is even unable to bring
the dead body of Nepali Citizens who die in Gulf countries every
day. It resembles the picture of our Foreign Policy. Not only
the matter of National interest is the solution, but also to
find the defending part of National Interest is the major part.
It would be highly appreciated if Ambassador Acharya's paper
could raise the same issue in a numerical order, he suggested.
Rajendra Thapa, Major General:
Mr. Rajendra Thapa, Major General Nepal Army says that on the
base of country, time and situation, National interest matters
in the context of Nepal. Central Point of the country must be
found in the beginning. We are not free from the period of Kautilya
till now in the matter of National interest. In his view, sovereignty
is not the perfect model. Power sharing is the only one major
issue for the political leaders, therefore, they cannot play
major role to protect national interest.
Mohan Lohani, Former Ambassador:
Mr. Mohan Lohani addressed his view that Nepal is unable to
protect national interest unless it solves its internal weakness
and keeps itself strong. He also emphasized on poverty and backwardness
Toya Nath Bhattarai, Former cabinet secretary:
Mr. Toya Nath Bhattarai, Former cabinet secretary says consensus
must go to citizen level. It is not only the matter of certain
political leaders but also the matter of Nepali citizens. Information
and research are two major elements for it. The information
accumulated only from Foreign Minister and Foreign Secretary
are not enough and strong. The culture of having export in Europe
and America is very common, whereas, we don't have practice
in Nepal. Institute of Foreign Affairs must be strengthened
and the experts and think tanks must be recruited in Parliament
and in necessary places.
Madhav Ji Shrestha, Former Foreign Secretary:
Mr. Madhav Ji Shrestha, former Foreign Secretary talked about
soft power and hard power. We must have capacity to utilize
soft power. National interest should be promoting not only defending.
Buddhi Narayan Shrestha :
Mr. Buddhi Narayan Shrestha, Boarder Expert, raised the issues
of boarder management. Crime is always somehow attached with
boarder management, therefore, it must be managed from both
Gopal Bahadur Thapa, Former Joint Secretary and Chief of
Mr. Gopal Bahadur Thapa, former Joint Secretary, MoFA has kept
his view in this way that multiparty system should have selected
a perfect person instead of selecting own person, however, it
has not come to the practice yet. National identity has a very
important role in International challenge. Evaluation cannot
be done based on the past; rather it must be based on present
context. Age and generation is enough to develop the country
whereas it can be destroyed any time.