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Report of the Seminar

Defending National Interest in the Emerging Internal Regional and International Challenges

Organised by Institute of Foreign Affairs (IFA)

9 September 2014, Kathmandu

Institute of Foreign Affairs, IFA in collaboration with Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) organized a seminar program, 'Defending National Interest in the Emerging Internal, Regional and International Challenges' on 9 September 2014 at Hotel Radison, Kathmandu. The program was separated into three sessions: Inaugural Session and two Paper presentations Session from two different distinguished Experts.

Inaugurating the seminar, Chief Guest Hon. Mr. Mahendra Bahadur Panday, Minister for Foreign Affairs described on Nepal's foreign policy giving emphasis on the internal policy reflecting on foreign policy. Nonetheless, he frankly put his view on the problem of foreign policy caused by the interest of different political parties rather it should be the voice of a state. He added, "single foreign policy should be prioritized and maintained as every political party must stand for the foreign values". He further added that we need to work hard tactfully to catch up the emerging opportunities at the global level. We must be clear on neighboring policy before analyzing in house foreign policy.

"As the Foreign Minister of the country, defending Nepal's national interests in relation to international community in a broader sense is my primary responsibility", he further said. Moreover, Nepal faces a number of challenges, many in the context of the recent developments, in meeting its foreign policy objectives. In this sense, discussing and analyzing the challenges the country is facing, or is likely to face in the days ahead, and trying to find out possible measures to effectively address the challenges is a timely and important initiative.

In addition to these, he further focused on Foreign policy. It is guided and dictated by a number of factors both internal and external. Other peculiarities such as the country's location, diplomatic traditions and aspirations of the people play equally important roles in deciding the country's foreign policy. Besides, every country has its national philosophy which provides inputs in the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. This is true in Nepal's case as well.

Ever since Nepal took the shape of a united country, especially after the period of King Prithvi Narayan Shah, its foreign policy has largely been guided by geopolitical factors. Located as we are between the two big neighbors, our foreign policy orientation has been to maintain the best of relations with both countries based on the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, political independence and mutuality of benefits.

We have been maintaining balanced relations with our neighbors; have been advocating the rights of the developing countries in general, and those of the least developed and land-locked countries, in particular; have expressed our unswerving commitment to the principles as enshrined in the UN Charter; have been playing active role as a NAM member; and have been making exemplary contribution to maintaining world peace.

Internally, Nepal is in the process of drafting new constitution for the country to institutionalize democratic gains achieved over the years. We have to meet the ever growing expectations of our people, especially in the aftermath of the successful People's Movement-2. Besides, we have to reduce poverty and unemployment, provide essential services to our people, and have to guarantee law and order in the society. From the outside, these issues seem not to have any bearing on foreign policy. But, they have. Needless to say, foreign policy is the extension of domestic policy. We need moral and political support from our neighbors, friends and well-wishers in the international community to accomplish the vital task of constitution writing and generous material support to meet our socio-economic development needs. In this context, I would like to mention about our commitment to achieve developing country status by 2022.

Our immediate neighbors, China and India, for example, expect Nepal's active cooperation in not allowing our territory to be misused by elements inimical to them. The international community expects Nepal to be a truly democratic country, marked by respect for human rights, rule of law and social harmony. Thus, as we can clearly see, the interests of our country and that of many others coincide and converge.

I have tried to briefly outline Nepal's national interest, and the Government's plans to defend them. I would like to stress that national consensus on foreign policy issue is absolutely essential for us to be effective in pursuing our enlightened national interests.

Mr. Shanker Dash Bairagi, Acting Foreign Secretary:

Mr. Shanker Dash Bairagi, Acting Foreign Secretary said that the core objective of foreign policy is to promote and safeguard national interests. Parameters of national interest define a boundary within which every government has to seek external engagement. For any state for its survival and growth, nothing is more important than preserving and promoting national interest. National interest cannot be pursued in isolation or in vacuum. Every government operates in a maze of complex challenges and has to address them effectively. Challenges and complexities abound at national, regional and international levels. Indeed, circumstances and contexts under which we attain foreign policy objectives are not as simple and predictable as we would wish for.
The growing shift of power to non-state actors has created both opportunities and challenges. On the positive side, transnational non-governmental organization, civil society groups, faith-based organizations, multinational corporations, other business bodies and interest groups have greater role today at reframing issues and mobilizing public. On the negative side, hostile, non-state actors such as criminal organizations and terrorist networks all empowered by new technologies can pose serious security threats and compound systemic risk.

International security has become multi-dimensional. Terrorism and cross border crimes are on the rise. The international community is yet to find amicable solutions to various crises around the world. However premature of a concept it may sound, the world is abuzz with the 'onset of second cold war'.

Prime Minister Modi has given priority in relations with neighbors which has generated tremendous enthusiasm across South Asia. SAARC member states, given huge potentials, must cooperate in a meaningful way to assert South Asia's rightful place on the world stage. We are expecting the 18th SAARC summit in Kathmandu later this year to be an important milestone in the evolution of SAARC.

Our balanced relations with India and China; great faith in and active participation in multilateral diplomacy; steadfast commitment to and involvement in non-alignment; dynamic engagement in regional diplomacy under SAARC and BIMSTEC; our consistent support and involvement in UN peacekeeping; our focus on economic diplomacy are among the activities we have been carrying on with full vigor. With this in mind, I put forward some suggestions -'6Cs'- for consideration. These are consensus, critical and creative thinking, clear, consistent and credible, cooperation and collaboration, comprehensive and cooperative and constructive diplomacy.

Dr. Rishi Raj Adhikari, Executive Director of IFA:

Dr. Adhikari, focused in the current situation of Nepal. Nepal, recently, at a cross road of various issues is especially in the grueling and never ending exercise of constitution writing. All important factors and apparatus of state conduction are in a fluid state.

We witnessed the death of CA I amidst multi-sectoral and multi-regional cataclysm and are wary about the fate of CA II, though there are glimmer of positive sign and symptoms on the horizon. We believe a constitution, the mother of all laws, will pave the way for avenues wherein we will be able to defend ourselves from any impending internal and external threats to our national objectives.

Internally, protecting national interests encompasses software such as freedom from all kinds of fear, poverty, marginalization, unemployment and exclusion etc. We also have to start imagining the chaos to be created if our youth, battered as migrant workers, and angry, start returning back from abroad in hordes due to labour problem in destination countries and seek their right to be employed! This could be another manifestation of weakening the national interest.

Partisan politics prevailing over vital issues such as national political system; politicization of national institutions includes judiciary, educations, bureaucracy, and criminalization of politics; internal cultural conflicts including inter-religious; inter-ethnic/racial and inter-regional are other factors to be considered while planning for defense of national interest.

Dr. Adhikari raised mainly two issues; national and international challenges. Nepal is in a very sensitive geo-strategic position as a bridge between two physical, economic and military giants. They are competing with each other for world attention and leadership. It is a delicate matter for Nepal to play a balancing role as a physically, economically and militarily small country. Nepal needs to urgently develop a coherent foreign and defense strategy which ensures protection of our national interest and also caters the need of our neighbors.

With the welcome remarks, Mr. Yadav Prasad Khanal, Resource Person of IFA, highlighted the issues on discussion subject matters. He emphasized on the gravity of this subject and also informed that IFA is organizing this discussion forum with an objective that the outcome of this discourse will add value to a desirable resolution of our vital transitional moment. Nepal, like any country, has many challenges at the international level. Though we are landlocked country, we cannot be left isolated from the world due to globalization effect and expansion of information technology. The west is heading to the east and our neighbors and the entire East Asia have become the focal point of today's global politics. Together, the world is interconnected amongst the number of issues like environment, resources, terrorism, diseases and so on.

Paper Presentation:

After the inaugural session, the experts presented the paper on different perspective of defense of national interest of Nepal.

The first session

The session was chaired by Professor Lok Raj Baral and Madhuraman Acharya, Former Foreign Secretary, had presented on the topic 'In Defence of Nepal's National Interests Internal and Regional Perspectives

There is no agreed consensus on national interests. This owes to the polarized and divided positions among the political parties on many issues related to foreign policy. Nepal's political parties have a sharply polarized worldview, which is often irreconcilable to each other. For example, some extreme left groups categorize the foreign powers as pursuing "hegemony" to "expansionism", others are seen as pro-certain countries. They are divided not just on ideological frame, but are also divided on specific foreign policy issues. The recent example is divided political opinion about the signing of Power Trade Agreement with India. Some political parties, including those in the government are for it, while others are campaigning against the same. Both blocs have their own interpretation of national interest on this issue. Thus it gets blurred as to what constitutes the national interest. If there was clear view on the national interest, no political party could have stood against such national interest in any issue.

There is a need for a broadly agreed national goals and priorities on foreign policy based on clearly defined national interests. Many countries have clearly defined national interests. Others have national interests academically articulated well. For example, Kumar and Kumar (2010) articulate the national interests of India to be threefold: Securing the country against the external and internal threats to territory, populations and vital economic interests. Obtaining the external inputs necessary to achieve economic prosperity as represented by sustained gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate between 8 and 10 %; and in Nepal, we do not have such well-articulated national interests. The foremost of tasks in defending the national interest is the need to agree on national goals and priorities on foreign policy. Nepal's foreign policy must develop a clearly defined strategic objective linked to its national interests.

First of all there is a need to agreeing on such national security interests, such as (i) protecting country's national independence and territorial integrity (defense against external aggression; securing international boundaries); (ii) protecting the country's national unity (stopping disintegrating forces internally); and (iii) protecting the general well-being of the people from external threats (e.g. terrorism, transnational crime, unconventional security threats). Usually, national security interests are achieved through alliances or coalitions, on which Nepal has adopted non-aligned policy. Then it is built around the policy of national defence, on which Nepal has doctrine of minimum deterrence. Yet another instrument in protecting national security interests is to create harmony in the security interests with the neighbours, so as to avoid friction.

Any country's national interests may have interface with another country's interests. Sometimes, the national interests of two or more countries can be competing or mutually exclusive (e.g. territorial claims), while in others the countries may have competing but compatible interests. In other cases, the national interests of two or more countries can be converging or even complimentary to each other. Safeguarding the security interests of neighbours comes within the parameter of national interest. Nepal's premier diplomat Yadu Nath Khanal said some time ago," Nepal's national interest can be undermined if the security or vital political interests of either of big neigbhours are undermined in Nepal". Despite the declared policy of not allowing the Nepalese soil against the security or political interests of the neigbhouring countries, including India and China, the continued activities inimical to such interests poses a strong challenge to the Nepali state. For example, there is continued allegation of the Nepali territory used by anti-China activists and by the elements posing terrorist threats to India, including through the covert support of the intelligence activities of yet another neighbouring country. With case of the Tibetans seeking refuge in Nepal there is distinct dichotomy of humanitarian and political polices that Nepal has adopted. Politically, Nepal has always supported the "one-China policy" and pledged not to allow any anti-China activities in its soil. On humanitarian grounds, Nepal has always given asylum and safe passage to the Tibetan refugees. Nepal does not recognize the political authority of Dalai Lama, but is not against the spiritual and religious sentiments behind His Holiness, who has strong following among the Buddhist communities in Nepal.

Intelligence constitutes an important aspect of national security strategy and can play an instrumental role in information/analysis of threats and challenges to national security. It is commonly understood Nepal cannot afford to build capability to fight against any of its big neighbours in the event of being attacked. Nepal's army draws its military doctrine primarily aimed at maintaining a capability to defend and deter any hostile against Nepal's security interests and Nepal's territorial integrity.

Nepal does not have an actively thinking strategic community of its own. So the country's strategic decisions are left to those who occupy the government at the time. Though India and China compete on strategic space in the region, they have similar positions in most of the global issues, including on climate change, the doctrine of "responsibility to protect", preference of UN role in solving global threats to peace and security, greater say for developing countries in multilateral financial institutions (hence formation of BRICS). They have converging stake on the continuation and promotion of trading and economic relations, which is growing.

Basically, a country's national interests fall under three broad categories, namely political, security and economic interests. Politically, the core national interests include preservation and protection of the country's national independence and territorial integrity. Economically, each country seeks to achieve economic edge from the comparative advantage in relation to other countries. At political level, leaders use the term national interest without much clarity. They pledge to work towards promoting national interests, often without specifying them, just as they do for working for the people. In every country, there is considerable debate or difference as to what constitutes a national interest. Often politicians use the term national interest to justify their action or inaction.

Yubraj Ghimire, Editor- in -chief, Annapurna Post Daily, has presented his opinion on the paper of Madhu Raman Acharya, as the commentator. His view has reflected National interest which can not be defined. However it can be challenged. National interest cannot be defined; however, it can be challenged. Nepal's foreign policy can be reflected with the behavior of immigration officers to Nepalese Citizens' passport at airport of foreign countries. While observing, bureaucracy in the world, it has to be progressed from buttering to service, and government service to national service. However, it has not been practiced yet in our country. Bureaucracy has not been reflected in public service yet.

India had an objection while China and Russia had opened their embassy in Nepal. The problem was settled during the period of King Mahendra. Nonetheless, no leaders can stand to protect the foreign intervention in these days. It can be said that there is lack of foreign policy, while Nepal is acting as if it is fulfilling its duty. Mr. Ghimire further added that foreign policy must protect the country's legacy whilst providing the example of "Jai katak and Jhiki Katak" policy of King Prithivi Naraya Shaha. It's been already clear in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that the diplomat having a messenger of a party or the representative of leaders can not contribute to the country more than they expect. Foreign policy should not be followed by the parties.

Political parties have changed the mindset of public. It is not the situation that public can totally trust towards the state. People have the mindset that foreign policy is run by the foreigners; as a result the rescue is possible only from them. Mr. Ghimire also raised the issue of Public Security. Former Indian Ambassador Shyam Sharan disclosed the fact that Indian Ambassador himself tried to intervene Nepal to make Republic. To suppress Republic Movement 2062/2063, Nepal Army attempted to suppress the movement by firing Nepalese people and the King Gyanendra protected his people. However, this fact couldn't come out rather people believed upon the external Power.

Professor Baral on the Chaired the session has touched all issues related on politics, diplomacy and economics. He has delivered his opinions in different perspectives. He was highly impressed in the paper of Mr. Madhu Raman Acharya. He suggested to keep his paper in the course book of Tribhuvan University. The topic of Nepal India relation itself seems very common in his view. Nevertheless, while we go to depth, it has profund meaning. We don't have any sound understanding of the subject. Treaty 1950 is not the issue to be raised. The slogan must not be repeated rather people must understand how geography matters to define natural interest. Nepal India relation has rumor rather than ground reality is well known. Both countries should sit together to find out the solution even in border encroachment. The decision of 1950 treaty taken by the then government was right in one hand. On the other hand, the political parties' leaders take this issue as a big issue while they are out of government, whereas, they normalize the same issue after they join the government.

He also talked about China Boarder. Neither we have similar language nor do we have similar culture with China. Therefore, there should not be any doubtful relationship with China.

Credibility, leadership and commitment are three major elements to address National Interest in Foreign Policy. According to him, Nepali political leaders work in a very low profile. For instance, it is very difficult to fix the appointment with Foreign Minister in India, whereas, Nepal itself keeps in a very low profile.

The Second Session

The session was chaired by Dr. Bhekh Bahadur Thapa. During the session Mr. Shambu Ram Simkhada, Former Ambassador, presented his paper on "Defending National interest in the Emerging Regional and International Challenges".

The world is changing profoundly and Nepal is undergoing deep rooted changes internally. In this process of transformation, Nepal's political parties and leaders are divided on almost every important aspect of national politics, economic management and international affairs, making Nepal vulnerable to internal division and external influence.

Hans Morgenthau, one of the champions of the Realist School of International Relations suggests that statesmen think and act in terms of national interest defined as national power. In this sense national interest constitute the vital core of a nation's domestic politics reflected in its foreign policy. This is fairly straight forward. But how do you determine and who decides what is in the best interest of a nation-state, itself in a state of transition internally in the midst of a region and the world all undergoing profound changes?

Is it politics or economics that determines the course of inter-state relations? The debate is long and the truth perhaps lies somewhere in the middle. Historically the view of the founder of modern Nepal as a "yam between two boulders" made cautious relations with India and China a vital strategy of Nepal's survival. Such prognosis helped Nepal remain independent while the rest of South Asia was overwhelmed by the onslaught of colonialism. The unprecedented rise of China and India in the post Cold-War global paradigm flux has created opportunities for changing this "revenge of geography" into a reward. Besides the challenge of managing the vitality and complexity of proximity, good relations with other international actors is equally important for Nepal's peaceful transformation to a prosperous democratic republic. Within this overall policy framework the following could be some of the critical issues in the protection and promotion of Nepal's national interest in the context of emerging international challenges.

Nepal is the meeting point of two great civilizations and South Asia and the central Himalayas are emerging as one of the main epicenters of the impending global paradigm shift. Nepal India relations are deep rooted and wide ranging encompassing the entire spectrum of history, geography, politics, economics, language, culture etc. Today India is emerging as a major global power with rapid economic growth and growing political influence. The tremendous economic transformation of the last few decades have already established Nepal's northern neighbor China as the second largest economy and one of the major global players. Strong friendship with the two neighbors must not mean relations with other important players in the International Community should not be a priority.

One of the most crucial aspects of Nepal's development is foreign employment and making information, facilitation and assistance to Nepalese migrant workers as one of the main priorities of our development policy and diplomacy. With this in mind Nepal government took the initiative of establishing new resident embassies in Malaysia, Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, the Republic of Korea, Israel, Bahrain and Oman as well as added labor attaches in countries with large number of Nepalese workers. Despite this huge investment by the government why Nepali workers are still the lowest paid and worst treated in many labor importing countries? The cost-benefit of these new arrangements needs to be evaluated and necessary steps taken to improve on them.

Ananda Aditya, Professor:

Prof. Ananda Aditya, as the commentator on the paper of Dr. Simkhada's paper, he addressed on state building. Value, vision and policy planning to beconnected to the conscience of national interest. Critical consensus cannot address national interest. He also focused on current situation of Nepal. Compared to many countries on the map in this perspective, Nepal may certainly look small, but is not yet too small to house a medium-sized population. What it lacks in territorial depth, its geography makes up in topography. The location of the land may today look precarious, but this same location between the two emerging large markets can prove a blessing tomorrow. The nation today imports all of its fossil fuel bespeaking its heavy dependence abroad on that material. But some of the physical endowments that it has - historical, religious, and cultural heritage, martial tradition, natural beauty, and hydro potential, for instance - would be the envy of any nation-state. Nepal may have been too small, too poor, and too vulnerable so far to demand and win the liberty to determine its own future, as T Louise Brown put it. But this means neither that it is destined to remain so in the future nor that the scope for growth will remain as tantalizing as it has always been so far. Growing out of its century-old chrysalis, it is a society with a glorious past, a hospitable present and a bountiful future, waiting for its true potentials to be realized.

Dr. Bhekh Bahadur Thapa, Former Foreign Minister, has commented as chair on Dr. Shambhu Ram Singhkhada's Paper. He said, when past becomes more praise worthy than the future in the context of a state, then it becomes a failure state. To admire the tenure of Prithivi Narayan Shah in the present context itself is a disaster. It signifies that there is no any good initiative taken by further leaders in our country. While talking about Foreign Policy of Nepal, we remember King Mahendra and B.P Koirala but not any other political leaders. Desalt political leaders do not seen have seriousness towards the country. Lack of international homework is seen in the present context. Internal conflict has also directly affected in it. We need the cooperation of intellectuals and also consensus of all political leaders to reach in a goal.

We must keep smooth relation with our neighboring countries and always try our best to give continuation in it. Nonetheless, it depends upon the political leaders who directly deal upon this. Such leaders must be searched in the coming days who can really sacrifice for the nation. However, it seems that there is no such political leaders and appointee who are born for the sake of nation.

Floor Discussions:

Dr. Gopal Pokharel, Former Executive Director, IFA:

Mr. Gopal Pokharel, former Executive director of IFA, also has provided his opinion in this way that the national interest can be pointed out in numerical order. Further he raised the issue of ethnicity. One should identify his/her own issue and promote.

Kedar Bhakta Shrestha, Former Foreign Secretary:

Mr. Kedar Bhakra Shrestha, former Foreign Secretary remarketed that we must find out the emerging challenge in the present context. Emerging regional challenges in next 20 to 30 years must be found. Collaboration, completion, confrontation and conflict are four steps of the upcoming challenges. Regional challenge is to promote regional cooperation. People are aware that SAARC will celebrate its 30th years; however, people are also familiar with its functions. Not only SAARC but also BIMSTEC is the hot issue these days. The most important thing for us is to think about our role to play in it.

Dr. Bishnu Uprety, Security Export:

Mr. Bishnu Uprety, Security Expert, has focused on European Countries' concern on Nepal's ethnicity and inclusiveness and the reason of more concern after 2006. He also should her concern on the frequent hot discussion on the issue of ethnic and federal system and its impact in National Interest. Besides them, he raised the issue of non-functional attitude of SAARC and its orientation.

Kosh Raj Koirala, Senior Correspondent, Republica:

Kosh Raj Koirala, Senior Correspondent, Republica has opined that China is blaming to Nepal for providing opportunity to enter US Army was disaster preparation in Nepal. China has drawn attention to the Nepal government that US Army is functioning in Mustang district of Nepal. His concern is wither foreign military should penetrate within security Agency or not. It has lost the confidence within neighboring countries.

Shiva Ram Khanal, Student:

Mr. Shiva Ram Khanal, a student has opined that the development model of Nepal is disastrous itself. It would be highly appreciated if the paper of Mr. Madhu Raman Acharya would also raise the issue of development paradigm; however the reality exists in haphazard development practice in our country.

Purna Silwal , Brigadier General:

Mr. Purna Silwal, Brigader General has portrayed the clear picture on Nepali Military Service. This is the first time that Nepal Army has released Nepali Army Doctrine. The doctrine has come from Nepalese law and it is the Security Policy. Though the Security Policy is not mentioned in Nepal's Constitution, it has come according to the discussion on Nepalese law. And, the doctrine has been brought out based on constitution. Though the security is not mentioned as a policy in constitution, it makes clear the policy. The issue of inclusiveness within Military section rises very often. The similar question was asked in the visit of Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, former prime minister in India during 90s. The Indian government had also recruited Gorkhali rather than recruiting the people from Bihar. The response given by the former minister is far enough in the issue of inclusiveness in Millitary Section. The certain parameter and standard has been maintained by Armies. Inclusiveness policy has been much utilized by them. Nepal Army has bilateral military relationship with many countries not only with US. Therefore, no other countries should be scared in it.

Dr. Khadga K.C, Coordinator International Relation Section, TU:

Dr. Khadga K.C, Coordinator International relation Section in TU has provided the recent example of US Government. He has focused on the recent issue of a U.S. journalist killed by the terrorists. U.S Government challenged Iraq for only one its of citizen, whereas, Nepal government is even unable to bring the dead body of Nepali Citizens who die in Gulf countries every day. It resembles the picture of our Foreign Policy. Not only the matter of National interest is the solution, but also to find the defending part of National Interest is the major part. It would be highly appreciated if Ambassador Acharya's paper could raise the same issue in a numerical order, he suggested.

Rajendra Thapa, Major General:

Mr. Rajendra Thapa, Major General Nepal Army says that on the base of country, time and situation, National interest matters in the context of Nepal. Central Point of the country must be found in the beginning. We are not free from the period of Kautilya till now in the matter of National interest. In his view, sovereignty is not the perfect model. Power sharing is the only one major issue for the political leaders, therefore, they cannot play major role to protect national interest.

Mohan Lohani, Former Ambassador:

Mr. Mohan Lohani addressed his view that Nepal is unable to protect national interest unless it solves its internal weakness and keeps itself strong. He also emphasized on poverty and backwardness of people.

Toya Nath Bhattarai, Former cabinet secretary:

Mr. Toya Nath Bhattarai, Former cabinet secretary says consensus must go to citizen level. It is not only the matter of certain political leaders but also the matter of Nepali citizens. Information and research are two major elements for it. The information accumulated only from Foreign Minister and Foreign Secretary are not enough and strong. The culture of having export in Europe and America is very common, whereas, we don't have practice in Nepal. Institute of Foreign Affairs must be strengthened and the experts and think tanks must be recruited in Parliament and in necessary places.

Madhav Ji Shrestha, Former Foreign Secretary:

Mr. Madhav Ji Shrestha, former Foreign Secretary talked about soft power and hard power. We must have capacity to utilize soft power. National interest should be promoting not only defending.

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha :

Mr. Buddhi Narayan Shrestha, Boarder Expert, raised the issues of boarder management. Crime is always somehow attached with boarder management, therefore, it must be managed from both sides.

Gopal Bahadur Thapa, Former Joint Secretary and Chief of protocol, MoFA:

Mr. Gopal Bahadur Thapa, former Joint Secretary, MoFA has kept his view in this way that multiparty system should have selected a perfect person instead of selecting own person, however, it has not come to the practice yet. National identity has a very important role in International challenge. Evaluation cannot be done based on the past; rather it must be based on present context. Age and generation is enough to develop the country whereas it can be destroyed any time.

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