The role of media in the nation building
A two-day seminar organised by FES Nepal
8-9 August 2014, Nagarkot
Prepared by Ritu Raj Subedi
The Rising Nepal
The robust role of the fourth estate has been again sought to
end the prolonged transition that continues to roil the nation.
The decade-long conflict ran virtually all the state organs into
the ground. Building the viable institutions to deliver on the
collective promises remains a critical and urgent task before
the nation. Achieving a consensus constitution, durable peace,
political stability and inclusive economic growth is necessary
to bring back the disarrayed nation on the right track. The post-conflict
society requires all stakeholders to work in tandem. The media
have emerged as the powerful agent of political changes and their
role in making positive gains for the beleaguered nation is beyond
The media that have always forged partnership with the political
parties and civil society during the major democratic movements
are again expected to play their proactive role in the nation
building project. At the moment, their tasks mainly include
oiling the political wheels and pressing the parties to mop
up the remaining contentious topics of the constitution. The
media must engage the parties and the public in the constructive
debates on the matters of statute to assert their role in the
reconstruction phase. One way of fulfilling their duty is to
pin down the politicians as to what is their actual position
on federalism, form of the government, electoral system and
the judiciary, the most contested points of the new statute.
This might bring an end to all dithering and wavering of the
key players as well as Constituent Assembly members on whom
the people pin their faith through the second CA elections in
November last year.
Realising the historic need, the FES, Nepal office, gathered
senior journalists and reporters in Nagarkot and solicited their
ideas on the said topic. Although the media persons had their
own perceptions and approach towards the nation building agenda,
they were in unison to state that the media should act as an
effective watchdog to end lingering deadlock, thereby facilitating
the constitution-making process. They agreed on creating active
citizenship and specifying the areas for the media campaign
to write constitution. Divergent issues such as media performance,
the degree of ethics in corporate and political journalism,
the capacity building of journalists and the need to mainstream
the marginalised gender and ethnic groups also figured during
Delivering her introductory remarks about the programme, moderator
Arati Chataut said that the seminar seeks to trigger a qualitative
debate on the role of media in the nation building process.
She said that several commitments made and mechanisms envisaged
in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) have not been yet
materialized. She noted that the usual modus operandi of the
leaders and the policy makers have very much frustrated the
people. The seminar wants to highlight the role of media during
the transition, she said and added that only the informed citizens
could take a right decision and at the same time the media need
to be honest to the women and other marginalized groups at this
juncture of state restructuring stage.
Remarks of Dev Raj Dahal, FES, Nepal head
'Media must contribute to build national identity'
Media as a means of political socialization transform people
into citizen and link them to national political culture. They
interact in multi-centric ways and report group-differentiated
rights, strong de-politicization of society and removed the
boundary between political and non-political spheres.
Two critical challenges Nepalese media face are: how to bridge
the gaps of cultural fragmentation between the urban and Westernized
elites whose members are alienated from national values and
institutions and rural masses who stay with native values and
tradition and between the netizens whose membership is defined
by the participation in the virtual world of Internet and citizens
who have legendary bond with the land and culture and participate
in the real life-world.
The density of communication by satellite, TV, radio, internet,
telephone and social media have changed the political culture,
the very definition of democracy, national interest, party system
and the economy. Nepalese media have increasingly exposed the
contradictions of society inviting policy intervention appropriate
for civic renewal, code of ethics, conflict sensitivity and
nation-building. In this context, public ownership of media
and their autonomy from the interest groups of society are important
for the messages they convey to ordinary citizens and seek their
loyalty to the nation.
Leaders begin to communicate with media
Cognizance of the mediatization of society, Nepal's political
leaders have begun to communicate more to media than among themselves
for political ends, use power equation analysis and seek to
alter the rules of the game based on feedback they receive from
their supporters. Feedback from the popular expectation and
action is essential for the attainment of the national consolidation
goals of society and secure democracy's functioning. It informs
the risks associated with the decay of political system. Media
are the learning institutions for problem solving and coordinating
with various actors-state, market, local institutions and civil
society-the later institutions are the providers of public goods
and services. External information is important for internal
adjustments to change occurring at the societal and political
levels. Nepali media persons are engaging with international
media to bring an end to impunity, improve journalists' safety
and security, implement media laws and enhance their career
prospect so as to rationalize both society and the state and
use humanitarian norms as a social discipline to generate meaning
and value of truth.
The operationalization of media within the recognizable limits
of constitution produces democratic stability, notwithstanding
diverse nature of media in Nepal. In so doing media bring the
attention of government and non-government agencies to address
demands of society, create common ground for conflict resolution,
increase the security outreach of the state and promote social
peace. The fulfilment of the demand of Nepalese journalists
for a democratic media environment is essential to strengthen
the national integrity system of governing institutions.
Need for Communicative Action
It also becomes risky when media compete for sensational news
and advertisement rate determines news circulation, media monopolize
public opinion and partisan journalism weakens both the opposition
and the voice of conscience expressed through public intellectuals
and minorities. These tendencies undermine democratic nation-building.
This is the reason Juergen Habermas has stressed the need for
communicative action, an action oriented toward reaching understanding
between various actors, resolving problems and maintaining social
peace. Nation-building in a post-conflict setting like Nepal
requires normative communication completely free of domination
of vested interest groups. The Constituent Assembly of Nepal
is precisely set up to rebuild this nation from below by communicating
people's rights, needs and aspirations but suffered at the hand
of professional politicians who left them without much role
except to consume the tantalizing talk of a new constitution.
Since nation-building is a mission-oriented job, Nepal's post-conflict
context too requires mission-oriented journalism that is capable
of bringing together the connectors of society for drafting
constitution, accelerating development and stable peace.
Demos, Not Ethnos
The concept of Nepal, however, is organic, ancient and deeply
rooted into the intellectual heritage of the concept of motherland.
Nepali nation-state's enlightenment traditions stemming from
Veda, Videha Janak and Buddha favored a much transcendental,
value-based approach to nation-building than the one based on
tribalism, ethnicity and native religious competition. These
traditions saw human being, not isolated fragments from other
species, but a cosmic web of life and articulated justice at
ecological, social, gender and intergenerational levels. Nepali
media and intellectuals have yet to communicate the interconnections
of these values in an integrated manner because "much of
its early history is shrouded in the absence of records"
about national growth and decay but not dissolution.
In election, public opinion, education and social communication,
Nepali media have played a vital role in harnessing democratic
legitimacy of authority and an erosion of the special privilege
of elites based on lineage, tradition, patronage and charisma.
Ethnicization of the nation-state undermines civic culture
associated with the value of active citizenship while maximizes
the ties with co-ethnics across the borders. The latter trend
has, however, produced a tension between irredentist social
forces and anti-irredentist state vitiating international relations
like in the politics of Macedonia. Therefore, there is an important
role for media to foster the value of civic virtues, nationality,
conscription of natives and immigration control.
Education, culture, media and religions are cultural industries.
They constitute soft power which provides historic vision for
nation-building without being prejudiced to the modern sprit
carried by technology and ideology-driven communication, such
as human rights, democracy and justice.
New technology-driven media far from becoming the sole democratic
space are disconnected with the rural life and became vulnerable
to various international intelligence agencies' manoeuvre to
control data, information and knowledge. Public sphere requires
protection from the commercialization, commodification and undemocratic
Only a robust and democratic media environment can foster the
arteries of communication and can rationally regulate the government
as a watchdog agency-the regulator of power, resource, identity
and ideology in society. Public sphere is a sphere of informed
deliberation, public opinion, will-information and agenda-setting
as well as defining the universe of democracy, development and
Certain pre-modern social forces of Nepal are struggling to
re-tribalize Nepali society while post-modernists are struggling
to deconstruct national identity seeking to accelerate mini
histories. In Nepal, it is essential to make a content analysis
of media, both conventional and digital, as to how far their
news, views, opinions and editorials contribute to nation-building
or on varying degrees provoke the cleavages of Nepali society
for its unravelling succumbing to the exogenous process of social
A cursory look at media culture unfolds that there are many
challenges to their autonomy in Nepal: heavy base of revenue
of media through advertisement has curtailed their freedom of
expression; ownership of media by interest groups of society,
political parties and business tycoons has eroded the efficacy
of media to defend human rights of the public and propelled
thought-control; insecurity of journalists from non-state armed
actors, party dons, criminals, security agencies etc enforce
their self-censorship lacking freedom to properly communicate;
job insecurity of media persons, financial instability and lack
of career prospects also hamper their professionalism; and financial
temptation of journalists especially paid news, incentivized
articles, partisan reporting and lack of boundary between fair
journalism and indoctrination have eroded the credibility of
many journalists. Nepali media have exposed their catch-all
character and helping them to adopt perspective transformation.
Media must speak truth
Media can play a role if they speak truth to power rather than
follow power pattern and consent manufacturing. In this context,
transitional justice to conflict victims can provide them emotional
satisfaction. The social learning capacity of power elites,
however, remains very weak as they and their intellectual cohorts
are conditioned by external knowledge and geopolitical rivalry.
The universal consciousness of modernity fostered by communication
revolution has provided Nepali citizens and leaders to explore
opportunities in a corresponding manner to maintain Nepali identity.
Nation-building requires the liberation of human energies to
make a leap into modernity through the use of analytic, discursive
and problem-solving approaches furnished by Nepali media. Nation-building
cannot be stable if it does not reflect the historical potential
of its culture, social capital and practices and acquire an
ability to conduct diplomacy at multi-polar fronts. The globalization
of grassroots citizens through the revolution of communication,
human rights, democracy, popular sovereignty, social inclusion
and principle of affected defines the mode of nation-building
as horizontal, bottom-up and lateral processes. These principles
are also crucial for boundary condition of inclusion of nation-adherent
and its foes. But the exclusion of opposition, minorities and
system-critical forces erodes the dynamism of the nation and
its ability to foster social cohesion instilling awareness for
building democratic community rooted into accountable, transparent
and trustworthy governance.
The informational revolution has unleashed the aspiration of
participatory democracy and development in Nepal that stresses
on citizens participation in public life, improved governance
steering, coordination and collective action in the delivery
of public goods and services, civic renewal and citizenship
building, judicious role of non-state actors and justice-promoting
development measures. Media's autonomy from the government,
commerce and geostrategic interests is fundamental to increase
public access, participation, ownership and influence and contribute
to viable nation-building.
It has the strength to catapult the powerless to the centre.
If the media give a new knowledge and correct information to
the people on the contents and process of the constitution-making,
it will help in realizing the nation building agenda.
Yubaraj Ghimire, senior journalist
Journalist are the ones who communicate with all sections in
a society or a state- rulers and ruled, establishment and rebels
and with different groups with each other - and may be they
all share their viewpoints with us because they expect us to
represent their views fairly, truthfully, objectively and accurately.
In Nepal's case, however, the post-conflict context requires
more sensitivity to the projection of issues so that media really
become a medium of conservation between rival groups. That also
means they do not expect us or in other words, they understand
our work is not to be partisan to one or the other group but
be messenger of objective truths as they see it. The public
is our reference point and measuring of our judgment. But the
public is a citizen of a state. Therefore, the consequences
of a journalists losing faith or trust of society will be far
more serious than a political leader in power or opposition
losing that. One thing journalism cannot do is shunning informed
debate, informing the public and enabling them to make meaningful
choice on public matters. Our works influence political process,
constitutional process or the process of national consolidation
that if seen positively, help in making government accountable
and strong in discharging its responsible and become responsive.
Democracy will require larger participation and inclusion of
citizens in the process of nation-building, instead of limiting
it to elite's participation. Absence of participation in a wider
dialogue with different sections of the society deprives them
of the ownership in the outcome of the nation-state and its
policy initiatives. Promoting this culture of participation
on one hand, and their role in making the citizens informed
are two major contributions, are two ways in which journalists
contribute towards state building exercise.
In the context of Nepal, nation building requires the harmonization
of their values, interests, ideologies and building a shared
stake in their common future or future with togetherness.
The journalists are on tenterhooks. Their condition is like
a stuff being baked inside a pressure cooker. When its upper-lid
whistle blows, its sound reaches far and wide. Media should
make a self-criticism. The journalists should be free from the
pre-occupied mindset. It is time to give second thought to the
sponsored articles and news being published in the media outlets.
Have they served the national interests? Or is it media ethics
to publish them?
We need to specify the topics to discuss here. The media should
focus on the prioritized agenda but they are running after what
the leaders say instead of pressing them to be specific on the
core issues. The media are not helping build public opinions.
For example, federalism is the most contentious topic and debate
should be on this issue, thereby contributing to the nation-building
process. Corporatism and party-affiliated journalism has killed
objectivity. Objectivity is the key to media freedom. I think
politically-affiliated journalists are accountable not only
to their parties but they are also honest to their professionalism.
We should evaluate the role of freelance editors. This is also
an occasion to assess the government policy towards the journalism.
This interaction should outline the areas wherein the media
can play their role so as to contribute to the nation building
initiatives from their sides. We need to see the media sector
from a gender perspective. How many women editors are there?
Even in the politics, women need supports to rise from the rank
I think the seminar will help us to be enlightened on the burning
subjects of the transitions and statute writing process.
Kanak Mani Dixit
The Nepalese media are becoming mature. They had to work by
staking their life during the conflict period. The media sector
should give direction to the nation in transition. It is difficult
to fight against populism than against the monarchy and its
cronies. The media failed to build strong public opinion in
the favour of the local elections. It is an irony that our lawmakers
clapped in delight when someone from outside the nation said
that Nepal is a sovereign nation. The media should prioritize
their issues. At the moment, they should give specific focus
on fleshing out the contentious issues of the new statute- federalism
and form of government.
The Nepali media are going strong within a short period of
time following the advent of multiparty democracy. They should
focus on the issues of marginalized groups, dalits and women
and play their role to incorporate their concerns in the new
The people in the villages say that the national media give
short shrift to their concerns. Why is this happening? We must
think about this. The new statute will be the outcome of the
compromise between the elites. The notions of pluralism and
secularism must be strictly implemented.
Hari Bahadur Thapa
Our all vital national institutions have virtually collapsed.
Their credibility is on the wane. Widespread frustrations have
gripped the people as the statute writing process failed to
gain momentum. The creative destructions will further exacerbate
the situation. Although the media are described as a watchdog,
they find it difficult to play their role as they are hemmed
in by different vested interests.
The state must be strong enough to implement its policies.
The media should inspire the CA members to draft the statute.
The CA is and should be a locus for the statute writing. The
participation of the people in the statute should be increased.
The media should act to bridge the gap of the parties' differences
on federalism and the form of the governance.
Before being engaged in the nation building project, the media
should themselves be strong. How do the media industries run?
From where does the money come? How is about their profits?
Have they used money in the benefit of the employees? These
question need to be addressed before jumping to brainstorm the
nation building topic. The credibility and moral authority of
the media is tumbling down. How can they set the agenda when
they themselves lack moral fibre?
Sita Ram Agrahari
The media will have a critical role in next 5/6 months. They
can play an important role for peace, prosperity and national
unity. Our sanatan dharma has emphasized on co-existence and
co-work since the time immemorial. Buddha had advised to follow
golden mean to liberate from the bondage. This philosophy should
be reflected in the current state-restructuring campaign. The
ruling parties need to take this wisdom under advisement. Indian
PM Modi has revealed the truth. In India, when the Muslim League
was suppressed, it stoked up for partition. The mainstream media
should work to connect the nation.
The media are focusing on the statute writing but they have
kept mum on the fact that the politicians are engaged in buying
time. The debate should be also on distinguishing between the
interim statute and the one to be written, excepting federalism.
Madhesi leaders are projecting themselves as the messiah of
the Madhesi people but what they have actually done for the
poor and dalit madhesis needs to be analyzed. The media should
push for the middle-of-the-road course to create an ambience
for consensus among the parties.
Lal Babu Yadav
If there is no inclusion and participation, it creates a sense
of alienation that results in rebellion. We should foster a
qualitative inclusion. I here prescribe 3R- recognition; resource
access and representation of different classes and communities.
I think politically-affiliated journalists are not fair and
professional. We should focus on qualitative journalism. The
public life has not become a beat for the journalists. The politics
should be for the people and it needs to be separated from the
Journalist from Avenues Television
I am not affiliated with any party. I think media should not
have political bias for the editorial freedom. Even the total
freedom is not good. There should be a minimum basic qualification
to join the journalism sector.
There is the domination of the corporate media. We have to
examine how much profit the corporate media houses have spent
in the newsroom. They allocate a paltry 10 per cent for the
newsrooms and the remaining 70 per cent goes into their pocket.
We need to correct this dichotomy for the better performance
of the journalism. There is the need for mission journalism
so as to contribute to the nation building task.
Both the media as well as politics have failed. The condition
of the state organs deteriorates after 1990 political change.
The political intervention in the public enterprises such as
Nepal Airlines, Gorkhapatra, The Rising Nepal etc ruined their
performance and quality. It seems that the statute is not going
to be drafted given the irrational activities of the parties.
Even if the CA promulgates it, there is no guarantee that all
will accept it. Therefore, a considerable uncertainty hangs
over the political landscape of the country.
Kosh Raj Koirala
The traditional media have been overshadowed by the social
media. The social media should be roped into nation building
project. In the similar manner, the critical masses needed to
be brought to the nation-building process. Civic education should
be expanded massively. This will make us to take pride in the
acts of our forebears.
Journalists have limited opportunities. We should devise our
agendas. An extensive debate on federalism is the need of the
time. The media have played their important role in weakening
single ethnic identity-based federalism. The media fraternity
is itself divided. We should narrow down the issues to arrive
at a concrete conclusion.
It is not that the nation lacks a system. It is the actors,
who are not fulfilling their duty. Merely a system in place
does not ensure a political and social order. The big media
houses are imposing their agenda. We should look at reality
through a binary code of opposition. Journalism sector offers
both challenges and opportunities. There is a need for rising
above ism. Focus should be one quality.
Our journalism is running on ad hoc basis. Its edge has been
blunted. It requires a shift from bluntness to sharpness. It
should be engaged in exposure campaigns. Journalists set the
agenda and strengthen the ideas. They must be competent and
strong but not aggressive.
The issues have cropped up here in parts but they should be
raised in an integrated manner. We are in the process of nation
building. We cannot build it forcefully. Journalists have also
identified with political groups one or another way.
There has been a dangerous trend of the decline of daughters'
population. Ten years ago, daughter-son ration was 6:4 but now
it is 7:3. If the daughters are killed in their foetus, where
will this situation take us? The mainstream media have failed
to heed this sensitive matter. Capacity building is a long-term
issue and the agenda of inclusiveness must not be weakened on
the pretext of the lack of capacity in women. Is that all females
are competent? Seen from gender perspective, there is still
a yawning gap in the education field. Female participation needs
to be increased in education sector. The root cause of conflict
is the lack of inclusiveness.
Yuba Raj Ghimire
The statute writing process should be inclusive but in practice
it is becoming exclusive. If the dissenting voices are not heard,
it will be a travesty of democracy. The divergent voices should
be articulated. Conscience is the bigger law. There is the need
for being sensitive about history. Some are trying to destroy
it. The media should not be influenced by the politics. The
process must not be undermined. If we blindly support our actors
in good faith, the nation might plunge into disaster.
Dev Raj Dahal
Freedom is law-based. Loktantra is not above constitution. The
politicians must have unswerving loyalty to the public. Politics
is not a private phenomenon. Politics is not a bad thing. We
should formulate our policy ourselves. The more the public is
enlightened, the more social cohesion this will create. This
will also make the people active. The state should regulate
market. The market forces should not be let go freewheeling.
Kashi Raj Dahal, Chairman of the Administrative Court
There are different methods and procedures to write the new
constitutions. CA is just method of writing the main law of
the land. If the parties solve the political questions and set
the principles before embarking on the statute writing, they
write the statute in time and such a statute will become durable
and ensure reconciliation in the society as seen in South Africa.
The people must own up the statute. Since the CA dissolution
in 2012, the parties have not moved even an inch further towards
resolving the contentious issues. The statute should be the
vehicle of the reconciliation, not the one that sows the seed
of conflict. The media should focus on the inner contents of
the statute. Only the 30 per cent people understand the language
of statute because of its high technicality. It is a formulaic
document so it is not rational to cram everything in it. The
main thing is to consolidate Loktantra. Even after the promulgation
of the statute, many countries have plunged into political instability.
This compels us to rethink democracy. The social power should
be strong and we have to learn from those countries that show
both failed and success stories. The media should educate the
people about the constitutional matters. The parliament is a
platform to solve the people problems. So, the honest and good
representatives should be sent to there. Loktantra is about
ensuring accountability in the governance system. The government
must be held accountable to the people. The judiciary is the
last bastion to protect the people's rights. It must be impartial
and competent so as to deliver justice in time and fairly. The
civil society and media need to mount pressure on the parties
and the CA until the cycle of political process for constitution,
peace and reconciliation comes to a conclusion. The new statute
must be able to promote constitutional culture. The nation building
task has taken a back seat as the leaders indulged in building
their own personal life.
Lal Babu Yadav
If the press freedom is curtailed, there will not be democracy.
The media should check the wrongs of the government. I have
a hunch that media are not giving priority to the nation building
agenda. In order to contribute to the nation-building tasks,
the media should have strong credibility. The journalists write
many reports but there is no response and action on them. This
shows there exists credibility deficit in the sector. There
are two ways of nation building. One is the ethnicity-based
state building and another is the civil nation building. The
former is fissiparous and sows the seeds of conflict while the
latter promotes cohesive elements and strengthens the state.
We should promote national identity. This is where the media
can play their creative role. The media should promote national
identities instead of parochial ethnic ones steeped in divisive
The function of the statute is to connect the society and the
people but our interim statute has divided us between pahade
(hill-origin people) and Madhesis (residents from the southern
plains). We are first Nepali and then only Madhesis, Newars,
Bahun and Lumbu. Nepal's unifier PN Shah had a far-sighted vision
when he made Kathmandu the capital of the nation instead of
his Gorkha kingdom.
Journalism must free itself from all sorts of shackles. Then
only can it serve all the humanity. There will not be journalism
if we seek orders from the owners about the contents of the
papers. We should be honest. The media is a watchdog, not a
referee. To enhance credibility, we must increase self-respect.
The politics has affected journalism too much. This higher dose
of influences must be minimised.
Gun Raj Luintel
The media's job is to reveal the truth and inform the public.
I think the media have helped develop system. It is matter of
open question as to how much the media are independent of the
parties and corporate influences. We should listen to the voice
of conscience so as to discharge our duty independently. Now
several platforms are available to pursue journalism thanks
to the boom of the information technology. Transition is also
an opportunity for the journalists to learn and write.
New media have also vital role to play. But, we are facing
the kind of news that tends to subvert the state. We need to
assume historical perspective in the statute-making process.
We should make positive contribution from our respective places.
We should ask ourselves how much we are professional.
We have been unable to conscientize the concerned bodies that
the media development must precede the nation building project.
Press freedom should be seen in relative terms.
Ram Krishna Bhandari
The media should help in ensuring the citizens' rights. Majority
of media outlets have not come out of the influence of the politics.
The politicians do not listen to the voices of media. The situation
is getting worse since the April movement. We should put moral
pressure on the parties to strengthen democracy.
Over-politicisation of the issues is also a problem. In order
to contribute to the statute writing, the media should tackle
the contentious issues head-on. We should ask the political
parties about their opinions on the key contents of the statute-
federalism, form of the government and electoral system. If
we give focus on the specific topics and attempt to draw conclusions
from discussions, this will provide a sense of direction to
the seminar. The journalists that show their allegiances to
the different political ideologies are more accountable to their
profession than those, who come from non-political backgrounds.
At the moment, the statute writing forms the basis of nation
building. No meaningful dialogues are taking place. It is claimed
that around 80 per cent of task of constitution writing have
been solved but we should not come under the illusion of this
claim as a single dispute can lead to the collapse of the entire
process of the constitution writing. To date, no guiding principles
of the state have been agreed upon. The media should generate
awareness among the people on the statute writing that is not
still out of shoals and the media should identity and help remove
There is higher portion of political elements in the media
sector. This obstructs to form unanimous voice on the major
issues. Commercially controlled media are more dangerous than
the one politically guided ones. It is time to assess how much
journalists exercise the editorial freedom. Capacity building
of the journalists is necessary for the state building. The
media should play their role as the watchdog during the transition.
They should bring the statute writing debates in the CA to
This is a time to pursue a positive journalism. If we see every
issue negatively, it will have negative impacts on the society.
To spread positive thinking in the society, the leaders should
also study books. They should not only depend on the newspapers
to keep abreast of the current affairs and developments but
also go for the books for imbibing deep insights and analytical
At the moment, the priority should go for the statute writing.
The nation is unable to take a pace in development fronts in
the absence of the constitution. We should make self-evaluation
as to how much we contributed to the constitution writing. The
tendency to take decisions in a smoke-filled room by the politicians
must be discouraged. The state-run media suffer from the self-censorship.
The seminar should make concrete conclusions on the role of
media on the state building.