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Democratic Socialism in Nepalese Perspective

National Seminar organized by Martyrs' Memorial Foundation (MMF)

29-30 April 2012

Ritu Raj Subedi, an Associate Editor
The Rising Nepal, A National English daily
riturajsubedi@yahoo.com


Democratic socialism has, in recent years, regained its strength as the market-led global capitalism is facing crises one after another. The severe financial recession in the US prompted the Obama administration to pump in billion of dollars to rescue many banks that were to collapse. This reaffirmed the Keynesian principle that the government must intervene with the market that is by itself not self-sustaining and self-functioning. The mixed model of economy that economist Keynes prescribed to fight the 1929 Great Depression is the middle path that the followers of democratic socialism have adopted to achieve their goals. The social democrats are making comeback in Europe. Voters are reacting to the EU's austerity measures imposed by neo-liberal governments. The victory of a socialist president in France and the rise of the Left parties in Greek is a testimony to this fact.The social democrats seem to be returning to power in Germany too as the ruling Christian Democratic Party suffered a humiliating defeat in one of the most populous provinces' election recently. The EU's austerity measures continue to receive backlash as it led to the massive job lay-off and cut in the social security findings.

Democratic socialism recognizes both the efficiency and competition of market, and fairness that the government promises to its people. The fairness includes levying tax, awarding contracts, enforcing rule of law and the distribution of national income, according to economist Jeffrey Sachs. It attaches greater priority to social security schemes for the welfare of the citizens. It does not leave the unemployed, the poor, the homeless and the old people high and dry as found in capitalism.

Despite its abject poverty, Nepal demonstrates unique position favorable for the execution of the ideas of democratic socialism. More that 62 per cent lawmakers in the legislature parliament are from moderate and hardliner communist parties. Non-communist force like Nepali Congress, in principle, also stands for democratic socialism. The anti-socialist and rightist forces are not strong enough to push the supporters of democratic socialism to the corner. While the political infrastructure offers ample room for the embracement of democratic socialism, the interim constitution also accepted its basics tenets such as social justice and security. The would-be statute to be promulgated by the Constituent Assembly is expected to further consolidate the principles of democratic socialism.

Against this background, Martyrs' Memorial Foundation (MMF) and Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) jointly organized a two-day seminar 'Democratic Socialism in Nepalese Perspective' in Kathmandu with a view to explore the common ground for the realization of democratic socialism in Nepal. Political leaders representing different political parties and civil society members concurred that democratic socialism could be a suitable political system in Nepal to institutionalise the political achievements. Nepalese experiences with various democratic revolutions, their cultural diversity and the lesson from global financial crisis provided with an opportunity to cautiously experiment democratic socialism here.

Opening Session

MMF chairman and NC senior leader and socialist thinker Dhundi Raj Sashri called for adopting the socialistic economy system and governance system having check and balance. Shashri said that the parliamentary system in the past failed to live up to the people's expectations as it concentrated the provisions of 'opportunity' and 'control' at one place, namely, in the lower house. Dwelling on the form of governance, he said that the presidential system would be applicable to a country where its people are educated and prosperous. "The presidential system gives a birth to a dictatorship in a poor country like ours," he claimed. He said that federalism was for ensuring the political and economic rights but if the provinces were carved out on the basis of ethnicity and they were granted right to self-determination, this would create ground for their secession. He suggested for federating the country into three provinces - East Province, Mid-province and Western Province- from north to south. He stressed that the hilly and Terai districts should be included in the would-be-provinces.

Democratic Socialism road to prosperity

Nepali Congress former general secretary Bimalendra Nidhi said that democratic socialism was the present and future of Nepal. "It is a road to prosperity." He noted that democratic socialism was essential to guarantee social and economic justice in the Nepalese society. He said that it was often stressed that the government should be accountable to the taxpayers but in fact it should be accountable to the all people, who should be elevated to level of taxpayers so as to bring about prosperity. He said that the country witnessed big transformation in the last five years with the introduction of republican set-up, federalism, secularism, inclusive constitution and mixed electoral system. In another context, Nidhi said that all parties should realize the nature and reality of the country while adopting the modality of state restructuring. He said, "Without pluralism, social democracy cannot be institutionalized." He said that the NC and UML had adopted the fundamental principle of democracy and stressed the need of transforming the UCPN-Maoist into a democratic force.

CPN-UML politburo member Mukunda Neupane, who is also workers' union leader, said that Karl Marx, father of communism, attached topmost priority to freedom of an individual, fair distribution of national income through social organizations and the role of cooperatives to reduce poverty." Theory should serve people, not the vice-versa. It should be pragmatic," added Neupane. He said that major political parties, UCPN-Maoist, NC and UML, suffered from dogmatic attitudes and backward mindsets that have posed hurdles to the realization of democratic socialism. Taking further swipe on them, Neupane said that these parties become united when it came to obtain facilities and privileges from the state but they differ while giving rights to the people. Stating state restructuring as the agenda of the country and people, Neupane said that the parties should give up their partisan interests to resolve disputed matters of state restructuring.

Dahal calls for active citizenship

FES Nepal head Dr. Dev Raj Dahal put emphasis on active citizenship for making the political leadership accountable to the people. "Active citizenship gets people engaged in the formulation of policies and programmes as well as their implementation."

Dahal said that sustainable peace was possible only with social democracy. "Freedom, social justice, solidarity and peace form the basis of social democracy."

He noted that social justice, the conceptual and ideological foundation of social democrats, left and progressive forces, was a means to fulfill essential human needs and to resolve social conflicts. Dahal noted that the new agenda of social democrats in Europe and Asia were involved in the reevaluation of their political policies towards welfare state by making politics public in orientation, electoral reform, public participation and decision making, devolution of power, human rights, ecologically sustainable development, peace and social justice for women minorities and weaker section of the society.

"They are also seeking reforms in financial sector, active labour market policy, an alliance of progressive forces, labour and civil society fosters the harmony of national regional and global justice enabling social democracy to deliver. Now the trend is more towards socially and environmentally inclined social democratic investment state," Dahal added. He further said that the crisis of global proportion in food, energy, finance and ecology requires global democratic accountability for its resolution and a sound partnership of the states, markets, civil society groups and international regimes as well as enhanced rules and institutions for democracy rooted into he basic values of social democracy.

MMF general secretary Khila Nath Dahal said that democratic socialism stressed the integrated development of the society and enhanced participation of the public.

"It helps establish the social system in the society and the country should bring in a new policy to mobilize the youth and women to secure the social rights of the people," he added. He said that the new Nepal should a prosperous one that should ensure social security to the weaker section of the society. He also shed light on the activities being carried out by the MMF and added it had been generating awareness about social democracy, labour rights and social security system.

Discussion Session - I

Young economist Atul Pokharel presented his working paper 'Creating Economic Bases for Social Democracy in Nepal' in the first session chaired by Omkala Gautam. Khem Raj Regmi, chairman of Nepal Civil Society, commented Pokharel's paper.

'Nexus between money & politics must end'

Pokharel said that he used the term 'social democracy' in line with the broad principles of Socialist International. He defined it as a system aimed at extending individual freedom and increasing prosperity on the basis of economic and social security. "Social democracy puts full employment, higher production, raising standards of life, social security and fair distribution of incomes and property above the interests of private profit."

According to him, public ownership takes the form of the nationalization of enterprises and cooperatives and functions as the means of controlling basic industries and services on which the economic life and welfare of the community depend. However, social democracy does not presuppose public ownership of all the means of productions. It is compatible with the private ownership in important fields, for instance, in agriculture, handicraft, retail trade and small and middle-sized industries.

"Trade unions and organizations of producers and consumers are necessary elements in a democratic society; they should never be allowed to degenerate into the tools of a central bureaucracy, into a rigid corporative system or into armies of political parties," he cautions, adding that the citizens needed to play a role to prevent the creation of bureaucracy in the public and private industry.

After presenting conceptual framework of social democracy, Pokharel presents a set of theoretical premises to lay the economic foundation for the creation of Nepal's Social Democratic Model (NSDM):

  • With the emergence of transnational organizations, international corporations and global political movements, nationalism has taken on new meaning. Nepal is becoming transnational. Today, Nepal is where Nepali people live. This fact must be taken into account.
  • NSDM should follow a middle path: the state control of some means of production, private ownership of others and the incorporation of cooperative forms of ownership.
  • Since Nepal is surrounded by the two large economies, it should bridge gaps between the two neighbours, create space for innovations and take benefits from the opportunities availed by them.
  • The government should work to ensure that there should be close to 95 per cent employment.
  • To commercialize the agriculture and specialize the agro-goods.
  • The government should enforce democratic control on the excessive accumulation of wealth at the hands of a few self-interested people.

Pokharel argued that Nepal possessed historical bases to usher in social democracy. They are: flexibility and resilience, global exposure and rich history and culture. According to him, Nepal gathered enough experiences in the field of political movements and economic development. Many Nepalese went abroad and brought with them ideas, capital and exposure, which are critical to the economic prosperity. "We have a large number of students abroad in higher education, particularly in medicine, science and engineering. In the long term, this represents a tremendous pool of talent to the Nepali community." He said that cultural diversity, family and community values, and indigenous and self-knowledge are some other helping assets for building a Nepali model of social democracy.

However, Pokharel also pointed out to some inherent shortcomings posing hurdles to the realization of social democracy. They include low level education, isolated population, gender disparity, unplanned growth, lack of expertise in the complex financial instruments and finally the weak democracy. He suggested giving priority to institutions instead of individuals and ending the nefarious nexus between money and politics.

Comments on the paper

As a key commenter, Khem Raj Regmi said that at a time when the feelings of pessimism were rife, the paper held a positive thinking for the development of the country. The statement that Nepal is where Nepali people live is very original approach of Pokharel. He rightly stressed that Nepal should act as a bridge between the two powerful economies. Regmi, who is also senior retired bureaucrat, opined that the country made headway in the health, communication and education sectors amidst conflict. However, the economic development remained stagnant with the Maoist insurgency. Stating that cartel and syndicate in the transportation sector was causing damages to the economic growth, he pointed out that the government should come to end such wrong practices and provide security to the industries. Where the private sector fails to reach out, the government should step in and invest there, he added.

From the floor

There was increasing number of participants, who commented Atul's paper. Many of them appreciated it while some others indicated some missing points in it. Former minister Gore Bahadur Khapangi said that whether it was appropriate to overthrow king without seeking reform in the monarchial system. Kumar Regmi said that Nepal should focus on the development of hydropower instead of stressing industrial revolution.

One participant objected to the argument of Pokhrel that the western people frown upon the idea of socialism. "If so, how a socialist candidate won presidential election in France?" Similarly, Omkala Gurung, seconding above participant, said that social democracy came from the West.

Rabindranatha Bhattarai said that the country could not move ahead if everything was seen from the Western perspective. He doubted the prospect of social democracy becoming a common agenda as many politicians had already tested the sweetness of capitalism while in power and sent their offspring to the expensive schools and colleges. He called for finding the native pillars of social democracy and preserving the family values.

Risav Ghimire said that since the contribution of agriculture in GDP stood around 45 per cent how the other areas like jal, jamin, jadibuti and jungle could help attain the rest of the national income.

Discussion session- II

Ethnocentric federalism unfeasible: Dr. Dhungel

Professor Dr Ramesh Dhungel presented his working paper, 'Drafting of New Constitution in Nepal: Its Difficulties and Hurdles' in the second session of the first day. NC senior leader Bhim Bahadur Tamang chaired the sitting and political scientist Ananda Aaditya commented the paper.

Dr. Dhungel said that the Maoist movement was not basically intended with federalism and ethnocentrism but the situation headed towards ethnic, religious and regional collision, and the expectations, desires and intention of ethnic and regional communities were going beyond original thoughts of the movement. "This has led the movement or politics itself going beyond the easy control of the political leaders."

He said that ethnocentric views dominated the political parties and many caucuses were formed in the CA on the ethnic lines, which was not compatible with the concept of political parties.

He also accused some INGOs of being active to destabilize and cause conflicts in Nepal with their money power and extra efforts.

Dhungel, who was also a member of the dissolved high level State Restructuring Commission, said that there was not enough groundwork prior to the announcement of federalism. He said that political activists and leaders were not well-informed about the requirement of federalisms and also about its technicalities and principles.

Calling for promoting civic nationalism, Dhungel said that ethno-based federalism could not be feasible in Nepal. Hinting at the various movements which were underway for the integrated of the given territory, he said that such agitations had been carried out owing to ignorance about meaning of federalism.

"It is an anti-federalist posture to demand that the given provincial geography must remain intact but to show a height of indifference towards the integrity of the national territory. This stands against the concept of federalism."

He said that there should be three tiers of federalism and the issue of identity must be addressed carefully and seriously in the third tier of federal structure by giving autonomy to the ethnic groups at the local level, focusing on their traditions, culture and knowledge.

Comments on the paper

Commenting on it, political scientist Aananda Aditya said that it was a super nonsense to demand ethnicity-based federalism. "Until the people get rid of ethnic fanaticism, it can't be guaranteed that the new statute won't be burnt down immediately after it is promulgated."

Aditya was highly critical of political parties and said that the CA would promulgate a kushe sambidhan, which literally means that it would be lifeless statute. He said that the leaders must shun the faulty notion that their priority was the priority was the nation. He said that there should be the provision of recall in the statute and effective accountability mechanism.

Stating that democracy is penance and process of learning, he said that the time had come for all Nepalese to unite as the egos of the leaders would take the nation nowhere.
He also blasted the communist philosophy and stated that Marxism was a dangerous myth that sold a dream to the people for the last 150 years. "Now the time has come to download it from the people's minds."

From the floor

Krishna Poudel said that the parties should go to CA elections only after disarming the Maoists. "The statute would have been ready by now if the parties had agreed on its basic principles prior to the CA election." He also criticized some CA members for speaking against the policies of their respective parties.

Gore Bahadur Khapangi said that those, who were enjoying the facilities and privileges from the state, should demonstrate their goodwill and generosity for those who have been exploited and marginalized for century. "For this, the state should adopt the policy of positive discriminations."

He further said that federalism was needed for the evolvement of inclusive system to uplift the ethnic community that was victimized by the systemic exclusion. Kedar Sapkota asked Dhungel to shed light on the scenario after the promulgation of the new statute since the latter claimed that the statute would be promulgated but could not be implemented.

In his response, Dr Dhungel said that he was not against federalism but he was insisting on the least possible number of states without bearing the names of ethnicity. He said that formations of caucuses beyond the party line was a sheer anarchy and was against loktantra. He stressed it was a weakness to introduce federalism without doing necessary homework.

From the chair, Bhim Bahadur Tamang said that the ethnicity-based federalism was not appropriate and there was the need of harmony and goodwill among the various castes and communities.

Day Second

Discussion Session III

Democracy for Gender Justice

On the second day of the seminar, Professor Amuda Shrestha presented her working paper 'Democracy for Gender Justice' at the session chaired by Norwegian conflict expert Ms Tone Bleie. Gore Bahadur Khapangi was the key commentator.

Nepal sees superstructure changes: Bleie

In her introductory remarks, Bleie said that Nepal at the moment is undergoing through intense superstructure changes with the removal of monarchy and introduction of republican set-up, federalism and secularism. "Consciousness among the people is growing at a greater scale. They are now demanding political and legal reforms. New definitions are being sought in the man-woman relations and the hierarchy of ethnicity," she said.

Dwelling on the use of addressing word 'timi' (you) to spouses by their husbands in the Nepali society, she expressed her reservation to it as a symbol of gender domination. She said it was internalized in the minds of the people and needed to be taken out from their psych. She was of the view that ex-Maoist combatants should be treated with justice in the post-conflict society. On the growing break-up cases of their inter-caste marriages, she suggested that elder woman should change their way of thinking and accept the social reforms. Stating that gender justice has been important aspect of democracy in the Nordic nations, Bleie noted that social democracy stressed distributive economy and ensured fair participation of women.

Loktantra key to gender justice: Amuda

Highlighting about her paper, Amuda Shrestha said it is in loktantrik system that gender justice is guaranteed because only a government run under democratic values could maintain unity between the state and society, and balance among various classes, castes and genders. She said that gender justice is instrumental to do away with the discriminations and injustices created on the basis of gender biases.

"The term 'gender justice' has come into use after the words like 'gender mainstreaming' or 'gender equality' failed to address the gender disparities," she said, adding that the new wording sought to change the societal attitudes and cultures, and link people's nature, capacity and rights with economic and political systems in order to address the discriminations faced by the women folks. "Gender justice demands accountability. It enhances women access to resources, means and mechanisms, finally enabling them with opportunity to control over them."

Male-Female Disparity Ratio

Disparity between women and men is high mainly in the field of education and unemployment. In South Asia, the number of educated male adults stands at around 73.8 per cent and their women counterpart around 52.1 per cent. There is uneven participation males and females in the field of lucrative labour force. The males stand around 82.1 per cent but the number of women is only a meager 35.7 per cent. According to a global survey, out of 20 billionaires, there are only two women among them. Women make up about two thirds of total poor people in the world. This women's plight resulted from their little access to education and properties compared to their male counterpart. They are deprived of equal treatment and equal opportunity.

"Loktantra strives for equality and strongly upholds a moral value for safeguarding fundamentals equality of both sexes," she said. Stating that the Interim Constitution contained several provisions in favour of women rights including their heath and reproductive ones, Shrestha said that women participation in the local bodies and national legislature grew by 20 per cent following the advent of multiparty democracy in 1990. Currently, the women lawmakers constitute over 32 per cent in the 601-member historic constituent assembly. In her concluding statements, Shrestha stood by social democracy citing that it does not deprive women of education and properties merely on the ground that they are women. "Its main objective is to end all types of exploitations, and deliver freedom and justice to the citizens. Therefore, social democracy is prerequisite to ensure women's rights, freedom and gender justice."

Commenting her paper, Khapangi said that it was sociological factor, not the biological one that forced women to lag behind their male counterpart. He said there were still many discriminatory laws preventing women from making headway in the different sectors. No matter what kind of system Nepal adopts, it the men who should be more responsible to ensure gender justice, he said. "The males in power must show generosity for equality between man and women."

Khapangi, also a former women minister, suggested that women minister must be headed by woman, not man as women knew their problems better that the men. He said that social democracy was unlikely to be effective in a country that is being fragmented into several parts. He lamented that the people forgot the contributions of Prithvi Narayan Shah to the unification of country. "The more regretting part is that the national unity day has been scrapped." Khapangi called for utilizing and respecting indigenous knowledge and traditions instead of blindly aping foreign learning. "Our political science starts with the quotation of Thomas Hobbes but we neglect oriental scholar Astabakra."

Comments from the floor

Lalbabu Yadav said that there was not more than 10 per cent of women represented in the major political parties. Yadav said that Nepal should emulate Rwanda where slogan like No Women No Peace worked effectively and recognized the role of women in the post-conflict reconstruction. He emphasized the people should focus on citizenship and nationality, not on ethnicity. "We can regain ideology or democracy if they are snatched away but we can never recover nationalism once we lose it," he added.

One woman participant said that it was wrong to put all blames on males for the plight of women. "It is the patriarchal mindset and existing social and cultural values that hold up women's progress." She said that there was the need for both genders - men and woman- to join their hands together to end the entrenched discriminations against women.

Ban use of term Kanyadan

Woman activist Omkala Gautam suggested that gender friendly provisions must be spelt out in the new constitution in order remove the various types of gender discriminations. Stating that women's condition was very depressing and girls were often harassed and raped in the rural areas, Gautam demanded that the government provide social security to protect them. She also pointed out that women had been discriminating against women. There have been ample cases in which mothers-in-law misbehave and exploit their own daughters-in-law. She was of the view that the word 'kanyadan', which consists of two words - kanya (virgin girl) and dan (donation or offering) and literally means the donating of daughter to son-in-law, should be declared illegal. "The government should ban the use of this term as the word dan stands for quite different meaning in our cultural context. We do not again accept dan once it is donated to priest," she said. "Should we not receive our daughters once they go to the house of their spouses as a bride?" she questioned.

Discussion Session IV

Modernization & Nepalese Youth

NC youth leader Gagan Thapa presented his working paper 'Modernity and Nepali Youth' in the final session of the seminar chaired by another NC youth leader and lawmaker Mahendra Yadav. Former president of Nepal Teacher Union Keshav Bhattarai commented the paper.

Nepalese youths in dilemma: Gagan Thapa

Thapa said the English words modern, modernity and modernization each carried different and multiple definitions from its Nepali corresponding word 'Aadhunik' (modern).

Modernization simply means a transition from traditional rural agrarian society to secular and urban one, he said and added that Westerners assert that industrial revolution laid the foundation of modernization. There are different meanings of modernity according to society. For example, its meaning differs between the people of colonized nations and those whose nations did not experienced foreign rule. "Generally, modernization is often taken as synonymous with Westernization. There is a misleading notion that the more one follows the Western values and lifestyles, the more s/he is considered to be modern. Modernity always turns out to be 'revolutionary' and new generation is naturally inclined towards modern thinking than the old one," said Thapa.

Almost every historian agrees that Nepal's modern history begins with the unification of the country by Prithvi Narayan Shah. However, the nation fell into the rule of despotic Rana Oligarchy as it was in the process of becoming a nation state. Despite this, there was development of necessary and auxiliary legal structures such as Civil Code during the Rana regime. Historian Bhuvan Lal Prdhan said that Nepal witnessed renaissance following the democratic revolution of 2007 BS. This heralded the unprecedented level of enthusiasm to develop Nepal at par with the advanced nations. "Nepal's journey for modernization is propelled by the continuous conflict between the status quo and progressive forces." Quoting Samuel P. Huntington, Thapa said that political modernization required the expansion of logical regime, structural diversification and political participation. "These elements were in place following the revolution of 2007 BS." The subsequent political changes further expanded the scope of political modernization.

Pondering over the condition and potential of the Nepalese youth, Thapa said that every generation adopts knowledge preserved by the old generations and adapts to its experiences, thereby transforming it to new generation. The old knowledge is renewed and modernization keeps going. He said that there is dispute whether to define youth on the age ground or on basis of thinking or ideology. Quoting psychoanalyst Eric H. Erikson, he said that the state of youth is defined by role confusion and a sense of identity confusion.

"Youths are naturally of rebellious nature. It is also easy to give political colour and shape to revolt. The Nepalese youth have been thrown into dilemma between the problems and potentialities of both traditionalism and modernism." He noted that the youths have been unable to intervene in legislature as they had been the part of experiment of the political leaders. "The Nepalese youths are facing the same problems as faced by the youths of every Third World."

Call for framing youth policy

Commenting the paper, Bhattarai said that it encompassed many things in regard with the theoretical aspects of modernity and the Nepali youths. He said that there was challenge to mobilize the youths and the government needed to introduce appropriate youth policy for the management of their capacity. He further expressed that the Nepalese youths had been switched to the foreign employment by abandoning the agriculture occupation. Highlighting the contribution of migrant workers, he said, "Their remittances served as the lifeblood of the country's economy but the government is not doing anything for their security. It is a matter of sad that their problems have not been addressed at the policy level."

Stating that the youth period is the most creative and fertile phase of life, he said that Prithvi Narayan Shah and Alexander the Great had started their campaign of territorial expansion at the age of 20. On the ongoing political transition, he called on the leadership to maintain integrity and abide by the value-based politics.

Comments from the floor

Gore Bahadur Khapangi enquired whether it was correct to describe the April Uprising as Janaandolan II since the revolution of 2007 BS was the first organized movement of the people.

Another participant said that if Thapa had presented the roadmap of the youth, it would have been far better. He also said that there should have proper policy to utilize the experiences of migrant workers after they return home.

Former NC youth leader Yuva Raj Khati said that three should be an integrated approach to address the problems of youths "A sense of charity and right must go side by." He demanded that the state must guarantee the youth's rights to health, education and job. He expressed his serious concerns over the increased criminalization of the politics. Stating that the youths were in utter despairs, the state needed to able to maximize their potential for the modernization of the Nepali society.

Mahesh Karmocha said that the nation had immense potentiality in agriculture, tourism, forest, herbal medicines and hydropower and the investment should be attracted to tap these areas. On the ongoing debate on the state restructuring issue, he suggested that proportionate representation of the people could be an alternative to identity-based federal structure.

One women participant said that there had been massive brain drain of the youths so the government needed to devise policy to check their exodus. She also called for the growth of jobs to keep the youths at home.

In his responses to the queries raised from the floor, paper presenter Thapa said that modern Nepal is one that gets rid of poverty of mind and wealth, and sees the end of all forms of discriminations and exploitations.

"When citizens demand rights with a sense of duty in their hearts, the state also starts applying the distributive economic system. The road to prosperity should be virtuous. We can move toward modernization through loktantrik system and institutions," he added.

From the chair, lawmaker Yadav said that there had not been youth policy since 1990. "We have been pressing the government to formulate the youth policy for many years but it has not yet given due priority to our call."

He informed that representatives of eight youth organizations submitted a draft of youth policy to the government three years ago but it was pending in parliament and awaiting its approval.

In his concluding remarks, Khila Dahal said that the women's role was very important in social democracy. The political changes have been successful when the youths participated in democratic movements. Stating that it was necessary to introduce and implement social security schemes, he called for giving momentum to the cooperative movement in order to tap the country's immense natural resources. "For this, the political leadership must be honest."

Conclusions

  • Nepal experiences transformative changes
  • Nepal possesses historical bases to usher in democratic socialism
  • Social democracy ensures social justice and security
  • Loktantra key to ensure gender justice
  • It is wrong to blame males for all sorts of gender disparities
  • Nepal's modernization starts with revolution of 2007 BS
  • Get rid of poverty of mind & money
  • Devise proper youth policy to tap their creative energy
  • Provide security to migrant workers
  • Give momentum to cooperative movement
  • Political leadership must be honest
 
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