National Seminar on
Civil Military (Security) Relation in Nepal: Prospects for Modernization
Organized by Nepal
Ex-Police Organization (EPO)
1 April 2011
by Chetana Lokshum Shrestha
Nepal Retd. Police Organization (NRPO) and
Saugat Legal Research Consultancy (SLRC) has organized one day
seminar on "National Seminar on Civil Military (Security)
Relation in Nepal: Prospects for Modernization," on April
1, 2011 (Chaitra 18, 2067), Friday, Kathmandu, Nepal. The programme
was supported by Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES), a non profit,
private education organization, committed to the concepts and
the basic values of democratic socialism. FES was founded in
1925 in Germany for freedom, justice and solidarity, based in
The programme was chaired and attended by
senior leaders of various political parties, professors, high
ranking officials (former and serving) Police organization,
Nepalese Army, Armed Police Force, National Investigation Department
(NID-intelligence service), and civil servants. Journalists,
NGO members, academicians, students of Security Management,
Kathmandu University and other stake holders of the society
are also present in the seminar. There were altogether 125 participants.
Seminar was divided into two folds; inauguration
and paper presentation along with floor discussion and recommendations.
Dr Chuda Bahadur Shrestha (SSP, Retd., Nepal
Police), Senior Vice President, Nepal Retd. Police Organization
and executive member of Saugat Legal Research Consultancy (SLRC)
welcomed the dignitaries and participants with objective highlights
of the programme. He recalled and thanked FES-Nepal for supporting
NRPO/SLRC to organize previous seminars; Democracy, State Building,
Constitution Assembly, Electoral Process and Security"
(2007), "National Security Policies, areas of Security
System Reform and Civil- Security Relations of Nepal" (2008),
"National Interest, Security Policy and Civil-Military
Relation in Nepal," (2009), and "Civil Military (Security)
Relation in the context of Nation/State Building of Nepal,"
(2010) respectively. He further put his view on the importance
of organizing this seminar on "National Seminar on Civil
Military (Security) Relation in Nepal: Prospects for Modernization,"(2011)
so as to have full length discussion in understanding current
security scenarios of Nepal and to make aware all the key stakeholders
regarding to it.
Mr. Dev Raj Dahal-Head of FES-Nepal and a
noted Scholar and Political Scientist, welcomed the participants
on behalf of FES and emphasized on overall health of society
(life, liberty, property and pursuit). He further highlighted
the importance of persevering state sovereignty, national interest,
institutional development and accountable stakeholders in post
conflict reconstruction. Therefore, he urged to develop environment
for security, political and economic stabilization, drafting
of a new constitution, distribution and deliberation of peace
dividends is a common aspiration of the Nepalese people.
Chief Guest of the opening ceremony, Honorable
Former Minister Mr. Arjun Narsingh K.C. , Central Member and
leader of the Nepali Congress, highlighted the importance of
the seminar on civil military relation in the current security
and political situation of Nepal. He stressed on the need of
collaborative efforts and support of, serving and former security
persons in formulating National Security Policy to strengthen
security for sustainable Peace Building Processes.
Chairperson of the programme, Mr. D.B. Lama
IGP, (Retd. Nepal Police), President of Nepal Ex. Police Organization,
remarked on the need of strengthening grassroots level community
security to achieve overall goal of national security. He further
appealed to create a joint forum of Nepal Retd. Police Organization
and other Ex Service Organizations; Nepalese Army, Armed Police
Force and Civil, for enhancing current security of the country.
He extended gratitude towards FES-Nepal for providing support
in organizing such National Seminars from last 5 years (2007-2011)
and hoped to be continued in future.
Paper Presentation and Discussion Sessions
There were three sessions in the seminar.
First session was chaired by eminent scholar Mr. Hiranyalal
Shrestha, Former Member of Parliament and Nepalese Ambassador
for Russia. As a Chair, Mr. Shrestha overviewed the criticalities
of Nepalese current transitional security situations and the
importance of media role in preserving national interests. As
a former diplomat and senior journalist, he also opined a need
of balanced diplomatic relations between giant neighbours; China
and India including integrated border security management. He
further suggested that security organizations should provide
need to know information in transparent manner so as to build
better understanding/harmonious relation between media and security.
Senior Journalist/Political Analyst, Mr. Saurav
R. Satyal, presented a paper on "Media's Role in Improving
Trust between Civil-Military (Security) Relations," cited
various examples of; disinformation, miscommunication, blowing
up an issues (intentionally and unintentionally), role of Free
press and NGOs, languages, rumor and propaganda, media Vs security,
etc.. He focused on the need to work out in developing mutual
understanding between each other's responsibilities for persevering
national interests and overall security of Nepalese society.
Full text of this paper is in Annex -II a.
In this session, Professor Dr. Tone Bleie (PhD in Social Anthropology
and Director for the Centre for Peace Studies and heads the
International resource Group on Reintegration), highlighted
on the contemporary security issues of Nepal with her field
experiences and about the book published, 2010, "Fresh
insights on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration: A
survey for Practitioners in Nepal, Kathmandu (she is one of
the researcher and writer). This book was distributed to all
the participants of the seminar.
Each sessions were followed by floor discussion.
In the first session, Former Secretary of Government of Nepal,
Mr. Madhav P. Ghimire, suggested that there is a need of national
policy and guidance for strengthening media and security relations
in strategic and operational matters of security concerns. Former
Additional Inspector General of Police (AIGP), Mr. Roop Sagar
Moktan shared how he was victimized by media with baseless news
during the People's Movement 2006, hence he suggested that there
should be media code of conduct in relation to security related
news. Former Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIGP), Mr.
Narayan Sharma Acharya also commented media misinformation in
public creating a gap between reality and rumor. Colonel, Surendra
B. Sijapati, briefed the activities of Public Relation Directorate
of Nepalese Army which addresses bridging the gaps between public
and army. Finally paper presentator Mr. Saurav Satyal and the
chairperson Mr. Hiranyalal Shrestha responded the quarries with
closing remarks of the First Session.
Chairperson of the Second session was Prof.
Ananda Aditya, Chair, Pragya Foundation and Chelsea Int. Academy,
reflected on historical security prospective of Nepal, glorious
images of Gorkhas (11 Victoria Cross recipient during the II
world war) and the recent example (2010), of bravery shown by
Nepali Citizen but serving in Indian Army, Gorkha Regiment,
Nayak (corporal), Mr. Bishnu P. Shrestha, Pokhara (Kantipur
National Daily, January 11,2011), Nepal. In other hand, due
to the politicalization of crime and criminalization in politics,
Nepal's security situation is in deteriorating stage. He also
commented that politics is not the profession but should be
guided by three principles; Dharma, Karma and Sewa, therefore,
Nepalese politicians should be guided with these principles
for the prospect of strengthening National Image and Current
Conflict and Security Management Expert, Dr.
Chuda Bahadur Shrestha, presented the second paper on, "Nepal's
Current Security Scenarios and Prospects of Strengthening."
He highlighted on historical prospective of Nepal's State Formation,
Third world and Nepal Security Scenarios, in relation to Political
(from 1846-2011), Economic, Industrial and Infrastructural,
Ecology and Environmental security. He further emphasized on
chronic problem of Energy Crisis, Population Pressure, lack
of essential service deliveries massive
Displacement and Migration of unemployed youth
from rural to urban that is creating massive insecurity in Nepal.
Similarly, he also focused on increasing trends of Corruption/Nepotism,
Politicalization of Crime, Insurgency movements, Terrorism and
Transnational Organized Crime with Proliferation of illegal
small arms and improvised explosives have greatly deteriorated
internal security of the country. In the same manner poor implementation
or non-existence of Road Safety Audit System have resulted fatal
Road Traffic Accidents that increases number of deaths and casualties
(especially young drivers and pedestrians). Lastly, he recommended
the need of integrated security management from national to
local level with strengthening public people partnership and
with the evaluation of security performance audit to overcome
security challenges of Nepal.
In the second session, altogether 13 participants
took part in the floor discussion. Former Secretary of Government
of Nepal, Mr. Madhav P. Ghimire, shared his views on the deteriorating
security situation of Nepal after 2006 due to the political
instability. Superintendent of Police (SP), Mr. Birendra Shrestha
of Nepal Police urged the need to strengthen community policing
concept to enhance community safety, crime prevention and building
police community relations. Mrs. Sabitri Lama, shared her experiences
on the security and intelligence system of Burma (visited in
2006) where women are involved in business and can travel with
full of ornaments without fear of robbery or looting. This showed
the strong security situation of that country. Deputy Inspector
General of Armed Police Force (DIGP), Mr. Krishna Kumar Tamang,
suggested that there should be cut- down criminal and high level
political nexus to strengthen transitional security situation
of Nepal. High School Teacher, Mrs. Madavi Katuwal, commented
that after 2006, political parties backed criminal armed groups,
creating insecurity in the community therefore, she suggested
there should be a controlling mechanism without political interference
to the security agencies. Former Inspector General of Police
(IGP), Mr. D.B. Lama gave his view to strengthen police and
security agencies by establishing and promoting community policing
in the grass-root level. Former Deputy Superintend of Police
(DSP), Mr. Krishna P. Kadel, highlighted the current trend of
joint involvement of parents, teachers and students in creating
cheating environment in examination which ultimately lead dishonestly
of the citizen and increase criminal activities, hence he recommended
that there should be civic and peace education to the youth,
teachers and parents as well.
Chairperson and the paper presentator responded accordingly
to the quarries and recommendation.
Chairperson of the Third session, Honorable
Mr. Kamal Thapa, Former Minister and Chairperson of Rastriya
Prajatantra Party (RPP) Nepal, highlighted historical and glorious
role of Nepalese Army from the unification days (King Prithavi
Narayan Shah, 1769) to the date. He commented that this institution
(Nepalese Army) is the main guardian of the national security,
therefore increasing the quantity and strengthening the quality
in a must. He further stated that nowadays though people say
that Nepal does not have national security policy in written
form, he feels it is incorrect to say so because according to
him, security policy has always been guided by National Main
Policy (Rastriya Mul Neeti), values and culture of national
interests to preserve national sovereignty and independence
from its unification. Hence, we should not forget this policy
that had been in practice for so many years.
Major General (Retd.) Shivaram Pradhan, Nepalese
Army presented third paper on, "National Security Policies
and Modernization of Nepalese Army." He highlighted the
need of Formulation of Nepal's National Security Policy with
identifying vital national interests, Threats to these interests
and To create adequate power to meet these threats and security
challenges. He further recalled on Historical background of
Nepal's National Security Strategy (NSS) over the last 240 years
with the notion of "Yam between two Boulders," as
a guiding principle of Nepal's foreign policy and locus of survival.
He also mentioned strong National Security Environment between
1769-1816 AD and the policy of isolation during Rana Regime
(1846-1951) along with 1985 National Policy known as Rastriya
Mulneeti that included foreign policy and defense during the
Panchayat Government. He also pointed out that after the restoration
of multiparty system in 1990 and 2006 People's Movement have
changed political system in Nepal but national security policy
could not be formulated and attempt to modernizing Nepalese
Army. Gen. Pradhan stated that Nepalese Army, regarded as an
important elements of national power ever since the establishment
of a unified Nepal have been providing a solid foundation for
the preservation of the national interests even in the absence
of a comprehensive written National Security Policy. So, he
has recommended a need of written national security policy with
strengthening and modernizing Nepalese Army as more efficient
and competent enough to safeguard the national interests and
In the third session, Lt. Col. (Retd.), Ek
Bahadur KC, commented that there should be an address of Disarmament,
Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) along with propose of
Security Sector Reform (SSR). Former Principal of Higher Secondary
School, Mr. Laxmi Prasad Bhandari, focused on the need of civil
military relation in line of protecting national interests and
sovereignty of the country. Former IGP, Mr. D. B. Lama suggested
the need of Nepalese Army Act to ensure transparency, accountability
and responsibility of the working behaviours of the army personnel.
Brigadier General of Nepalese Army, Mr. Ramesh Bista, clarified
that Nepalese Army Act, 2006, has all the provisions that came
up in the floor.
Chairperson and the paper presentator responded
accordingly to the quarries and recommendations.
Feedback and Conclusion
Overall feedback of the participants are
- Seminars as these
will work as a bridge to fill up the gap between civil and
military/security relation during this transitional situation
of the country.
- Seminar provided
a floor to create media responsiveness and the need of well
briefed spoke-person to communicate relevant messages to the
people in relation to security matters.
- Seminar was able
to sensitize political leaders, concerned stakeholders and
members of civil society to develop a control and preventive
mechanism for preventing criminal political nexus, minimizing
political interference in security apparatus, and also to
make policy to prevent unintentional death and injuries like
fatal Road Traffic Accidents (RTA).
- Seminar also helped
to understand the need of community policing, youth peace
education for safety and security.
- Seminar helped to
recognize the role of Nepalese Army right from the state building
of Nepal and its contribution in home and abroad for maintaining
peace, security and development.
- Seminars as these
should be more in future for it gives a floor to clarify from
both the ends at various level.